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Making Marbles Page!

Information on various marble companies and much more!

Check below for new Christensen Agate Section!


Does anyone wonder how the most beautiful of colors are developed inside of the marble?

The most fascinating aspect of marbles when one looks at them is how did they get the color inside or outside of the marble.   Machine made marbles and handmade marbles consist of various techniques in which makes them truly unique in regards to color and patterns.  The many different colors are the result of fluorspar, the usual basic sand, soda ash and feldspar that are the result of the making of the glass.  To make the certain colors like white, blue, and the many other colors the use of zinc oxide, cobalt oxide and black copper oxide is used.   When getting the colors it is very important that the timing and temperature is of consistency.


Secret "Recipes"

Over the years many different marble factories had there own secret recipes.  The most important of these recipes consisted of the workers that worked in the factories.  It was those workers that had the knowledge to tool the machine in accordance to a certain pattern.  These men were the true artist of the marble machine era.  One great example of this era was a gentleman that worked at Christensen Agate Company.  The company was located in Cambridge Ohio in 1927 to its demise in 1929.  Arnold Fiedler was the inventor of the Flames, Guinea's, Cobras etc.  He was a very nice gentleman in which he gave marbles to kids as a token of gratitude for the love of marble playing.  The secret he had carried with him came from Germany in which he got his start of glass working and he had come to the United States for employment.  Arnold Fiedler could produce many different colors of swirls of marbles that other marble companies of the time could not produce.  Arnold would keep the secrets of his marble making only to himself and he would not even tell his secrets to his family.  His secret took him to his grave! The secret recipes that are used in marbles continued up until the demise of machine made marbles in the 1960's. 


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This is an example of Arnold Fiedler's work this is a prized Guinea from the Christensen Agate Company.


This is an example of dug glass from the Christensen Agate Company, picture is courtesy of Carlin & Lucy Carpenter


Christensen Agate Company (1925-1933)

Many Thanks to Galen (lstmmrbls), Craig (buckeye), Roger Browse (browse4antiques ) and MarbleAlan for their constant contributions of information pertaining to the Christensen Agate Company and its marbles. Additional thanks go to Ron Shepherd (wvrons), Kevin Roberts, Joe Street, ann and others mentioned in the reference section.

Christensen Agate Company History
Payne, Ohio - 1925 – 1927
Cambridge, Ohio - 1927 – 1933

The Christensen Agate Company was founded in 1925 in Payne, Ohio. In 1927, the company moved to Cambridge, Ohio, and was located in a small brick building on Bennett Avenue, adjacent to the Cambridge Glass Company, from whom it purchased scrap glass. The company had no connection with Martin Christensen or the M.F. Christensen & Son Company. However, the original incorporators may have felt that the use of the Christensen name was a good marketing move. [CAC REF 38] The Christensen Agate Company was out of business only eight years later (1931). However brief its career was, it was also spectacular, for the company produced some of the most colorful and beautiful machine made marbles the world would ever see. [CAC REF 36]
The Christensen Agate Company was founded by W.F. Jones, H.H. Culper, Owen M. Roderick, Robert C. Ryder, and Beaulah P. Hartman. However, the two individuals who made the company's marbles as distinctive as they are were the aforementioned glass chemist Arnold Fiedler, who later became the head of the company, and Howard M. Jenkins, who was president of Christensen Agate and also manufactured and patented its marble-making machinery. This patent was obtained in 1924; however, there is little that can be said about the first marbles produced by this machinery while operating in the factory's original location in Payne. [CAC REF 36]

Much of the credit to spectacular marbles should go to Arnold Fiedler, who brought with him both expertise and glass formulae obtained during his employment with the nearby Cambridge Glass Company. Fiedler used his innovative techniques and skills learned in Germany and later refined at Cambridge Glass to lend to the marbles their unique coloration. When Christensen Agate closed its doors in 1933, two years after the actual cessation of marble manufacture, Fiedler had already shifted his employment to Akro Agate. [CAC REF 36]

Timeline of Christensen Agate Company

This timeline shows the range when Christensen Agate operated. Several important external factors impacted the company including tight finances during the Great Depression, lawsuits which opened the doors for competition – five new marble companies, and massive changes in new marble technologies, which would likely force investments in new manufacturing equipment to keep competitive. If new equipment was just installed years before, re-investments during the Great Depression may not have been financially viable.

History – Why it matters
“Christensen Agate Company (CAC) (1925-1933)” – Considering the technological innovations, CAC spanned the years from hand-gathered/machine-rounded to entirely machine made marbles. The timeframe began pre-Great Depression in a period of prosperity at or near the peak of marble-playing craze, before the decline. This was also pre-WWII, so many glass manufacturers used uranium in their products and are UV reactive (glow under black light).
“the company moved to Cambridge, Ohio, adjacent to the Cambridge Glass Company, from whom it purchased scrap glass.” – The Cambridge Glass Co made quality glass products, such as dinnerware and vases and such. Manufacturing serving platters or display items in peak prosperity, quality glass was used for their products. Even their cast-off glass was excellent quality. Thus the scrap glass used to produce marbles was top notch for marbles. Additionally, using a different glass source (scrap glass from Cambridge Glass) rather than the same sources that the “WV Swirl” companies used, their colors and color combinations often looked different.
“Howard M. Jenkins, who was president of Christensen Agate also manufactured and patented its marble-making machinery.” – although not much may be known about the CAC machinery, it was distinctive enough to warrant a patent. The styles and designs of marbles may have been impacted by using a different machine.
“Fiedler used his innovative techniques and skills learned in Germany” – perhaps this may be why some of the patterns and colors resemble some German-made marbles
“When Christensen Agate closed its doors in 1933, two years after the actual cessation of marble manufacture, Fiedler had already shifted his employment to Akro Agate,” - Fiedler worked at Peltier before working at Christensen's, at worked at Akro after Christensen; this likely explains why early Peltier and Akro marbles possess many of the same colors seen in Christensen's marbles.
“Christensen Agate closed its doors in 1933” - the company was in operation for a very short time, perhaps in peak activity only four years at the Cambridge location. Since the factory could only produce some 300,000 marbles each day, probably an estimate of 400,000,000 marbles made in Cambridge is a reasonable assumption. This may seem like an abundance of marbles, but given the fact that over 80 years have elapsed since the factory closed its doors, one can imagine that through loss and breakage (during the peak marble playing era), it is no wonder they are so difficult to come by. [CAC REF 36] In relative terms to other manufacturers, CAC marbles are rather rare.

There are many stories started and repeated about marbles and marble related people places and things that have been found to be false or have absolutely nothing more than a story by an old man to back up the information. One such story with no validity is that Arnold Fiedler worked for Cambridge Glass Co. and that he owned Christensen Agate Company [CAC REF 64]
Arnold Fiedler signed his Peltier contract Sept 15th 1924, bought away from Akro (or so it is believed). Then, Fiedler went to CAC sometime in 1927 or 1928 (it is thought). It is unknown how long he was at Christensen Agate. [CAC REF 65]

Christensen Agate Quality
If there is one thing that should stick in your mind when trying to ferret out CAC identification it is this: QUALITY - both quality of glass, and quality of workmanship. Many of the identification traits orbit around this facet. “Colors that pop!” means quality vibrant colors. “Colors that do not bleed” mean top notch glass, and so on. When you think of CAC, think of quality.
“The Christensen Agate Company (CAC) mix of craftsmanship, science and innovation produced vividly beautiful marbles that many collectors consider the artistic peak of machine made toy marble production. This fact, and the fact that Christensen Agate only produced marbles for a few years, makes these marbles especially rare and desirable.” [CAC REF 01]

"Christensen Agate Company marbles, nicknamed CACs or Chrissys by collectors, are famous for their splashes of vivid, exotic colors which are strikingly modern even by today's standards. Christensen Agate made beautiful swirl marbles that sometimes came out with exotic layered 'flame' patterns. They also produced other beautiful marble styles such as the striped transparent, striped opaque, submarine and the coveted Guinea marbles.” [CAC REF 01]

The Christensen Agate Company produced only single-stream marbles. They produced all types of single-stream marbles: single-color, slag, and swirl. It does not appear that any Christensen Agate marbles are variegated stream. [CAC REF 01]

Christensen Agate Company Traits
“Christensen Agate marbles were produced by machinery that only made single-stream marbles. In their swirls, multiple color marbles were created not by variegated-stream machinery but by mixing the different colors of glass together. The various colors had different consistencies and therefore remained separate for the most part, instead of blending together. Few Christensen Agate marbles will manifest the blending of colors so often seen on later marbles, such as Akro Agates. Many Christensen marbles, particularly those with opaque colors, are identifiable due to their unique coloring. Thanks to the skills of Arnold Fiedler, Christensen colors are distinguishable from those of other companies, and once you have seen them you will not mistake non-Christensen marbles from those made by the company during its brief existence.”
“Go by base glass, clarity, CAC color [palette], bubbles, fluorescence, ridges on the back of the swirl.” [CAC REF 49]

Size - CAC.

“Most Christensen Agate marbles will have a diameter of under 25/32" (0.78”). Any larger than this are considered very rare and none have yet been found that are over one inch.”
CAC did make 1" marbles, but I have only seen that size in a slag marble. [CAC REF 06]
“Looks like Christensen colors and slightly out of round, but it is way too big at 31/32nds.”
“It would be an unusual size for CAC at 13/16 inch. It is also unusual size for Champion (except Champion New Old Fashioned). A swirl at 13/16 inches usually falls to Alley or Jabo.” [CAC REF 105]
“While normally you would think 7/8 is out of the question for CAC, I have three of these in blue, Vaseline and green that are not German. I think of them as the early slags.” [CAC REF 102]

Out of round
This author put “out of round” under the size category because the size may change, depending upon which angle you measure an out of round marble.

“Out of round is unfortunately a major hallmark for Christensens.” [CAC REF 116] “Out of round even makes a stronger case for CAC.” [CAC REF 32]
Striped Opaques don't exhibit much in the way of a general out-of-roundness. That is generally attributed to CAC flames. [CAC REF 122]

Seams - CAC.
Christensen Agate marbles can exhibit either two seams (on opposite sides of the marble), a single seam (either short or long) or no seam (aka a cutoff). There is very little known about the techniques the company actually used to produce marbles, so it is unclear if different machinery produced each type of marble, although some Christensen Agate marbles are hand-gathered. [CAC REF 01]
The seam tends to be fairly straight. “The seam is too curved for CAC.” [CAC REF 77]

CAC Two seams - Typical

CACs with two seams are their guineas, striped opaques, striped transparents and slags (often thought of as striped transparents, but only contain white). These marbles have two seams on the opposite sides of the marble, with the stripes running from seam to seam. Below are some examples from each design style.

One CAC trait is and “S” pattern on two seam marbles. The thing about the "S" is that it will appear as if a stripe from one side will loop around and end up on the other side of the seam; it usually only happens on CAC. [CAC REF 101]

CAC Two seams – “Pulled”
“I’ve had CAC swirls that had the seams pulled just like that.” [CAC REF 73] When the marble is rounded, sometimes one of the seams appears to be “pulled” around to the other side of the marble, near the other seam.

CAC One seam - “Stacked” seams

If every machine-made marble has is cut from a stream of molten glass, and has two cuts it should have two seams. That begs the question of: why do some marbles exhibit only one seam?

“There are several theories when it comes to machine made single seam marbles........... It is my opinion that if a glob of molten glass is sheared, dropped or pinched from the tank the head of that molten glob could quite possibly be "free" of any shear marks but only noticeable at the termination side.....I hope that makes sense.......sort of like when a water droplet is formed on a shower-head from the steam just before it falls..........Ron discussed this in part from another thread I can’t find right now.......It also could be that the single seam is two seams looking like one continuous side by side cut line (your theory)”

Molten glass can have weird characteristics.......The shearing mechanism coupled with the process of what happens when the marble hits the rollers can create an undefinable outcomes.

My question is, "How did this happen between the time the marble was sheared from the tank til it came off the rollers"??????? (in reference to the nine and tail) [CAC REF 135]

As explained elsewhere in the All About marbles forum,
“I personally think, they just aren't horizontal to each other, instead they are stacked on top of each other. You can see the two seams right on top of each other. If you place the marble where the seams are horizontal, you will see a Rams head.

Figure ^^ Single seam Ram’s head (not CAC, but illustrates the “stacked seam” concept)
Just backing up my theory on the single seam thing, here is a Peltier Rainbo where it happened. Not trying to debate or anything just giving my opinion. What you're looking at is the only seam on this marble, they are stacked on top of each other, the only company I’ve seen do this is CAC and Pelt.
It also could be that the single seam is two seams looking like one continuous side by side cut line (your theory) [CAC REF 136] [CAC REF 137]

I personally think single seams are really two seams, they just aren't horizontal to each other, instead they are stacked on top of each other. It's impossible for a marble to be made on a machine and be cut only one time. I still call them Single Seams though.. [CAC REF ] Marble Whisperer.

CAC One Long seam

“CAC has longer seams than Akro.”

CAC No seams (or a cutoff)

There are many CACs with no seam at all (particularly swirls), or hand-gathered marbles where the term “seam” is infrequently or incorrectly used. For the hand-gathered /machine-rounded marbles (i.e. “transitionals”), different names are used to describe different “pontil” styles. However, these names are a misnomer, because frequently they are not pontil marks but are actually a cut-off or shear mark. For example, a crease-pontil does not come from a punty, and hence, is not a true pontil mark. If a “seam” is defined as a visible mark where a stream of molten glass is cut (by manual shears, or machine shears, or frozen banana, or whatever), then a “crease-pontil” should technically be called a “crease seam.”
There are many CACs with fine lines with only one cutoff, with loops on either side, which would indicate CAC. [CAC REF 97]

“The single-seam CACs were likely handgathered. They seem to be much more closely related to ones that have a 9-and-tails, than they are to the 2-seam examples. Of the 3 CAC marbles [KF: please see the reference and original post]: a 9-and-tails, a 1-seam, and a 2-seam, it seems that the 1-seam examples are ones for which the "9" is wider, and runs all the way back to the seam so it is a loop rather than a "9". “ [CAC REF 147]

Additionally, swirls of any manufacturer usually do not show a seam, but the striping glass often shows a cut mark or cut line; more on this trait in the swirls section.

Seams – Miscellaneous info

“When you see a single-seam CAC half, or look through a nice transparent Guinea (more transparent Guineas are single-seam than the others, it seems) that kind of smooshing up just doesn't appear to have happened. There usually is a small looping of surface glass directly under the seam, but it is not smooshed. Love that word. The loop is a little similar to what you can see inside some Navarre types. I keep leaning toward a handgather of some sort. Peace,Galen” [CAC REF 33]
[The identification is] CAC because of the way that orange curves around and over the seam.

The orange peel family of CACs is mainly on the top pole with electric yellow underlying while these go between the seams and mainly electric orange.

Color - CAC.

“Good characteristics to look for when spotting CAC marbles are that the colors are BRIGHT, bold and fairly perfect, with not much wandering of the color. The color is strong from tip to tip, there is no blending.” [CAC REF 98] Christensen colors are distinct and do not run. [CAC REF 00]

“May I ask how you know it is CAC? It's the brightness of the colors and how they look next to each other (no severe bleeding).” [CAC REF 76]

CAC White

“Sometimes, it hard to tell between Alley and CAC, but the base glass on this one really stands out, hence the leaning towards CAC. I've only found that "pure white" color on other CAC's. This marble is surrounded with other known Alleys which were previously identified on this site for comparison and consideration.” [CAC REF 68]

Ravens and CAC have the two best whites. Both CAC and Ravenswood are early marbles, so a lot of their glass and marbles are nicer. [CAC REF 104]

The movement of the glass and the fluorescence of the white with a black light should help you identify it. [CAC REF 69]
“The wide swirls made me think Champion, and the striated White glass does not look like the CAC.” [CAC REF 100]
“Now I see a white base which is helping remove CAC from the game.” [CAC REF 31]

"Electric" colors

Many Christensen Agate marbles are made with very brightly colored glass (usually yellow, or orange). These are referred to as “electric” colors. The glass colors are unique to Christensen Agate marbles and command much higher prices than the normal colors. [CAC REF 01]
“Most think that the electric yellow is Champion, almost all of them are; not this one.” [CAC REF 49]
On the orange peel family of CACs, the orange peel is mainly on the top pole with electric yellow underlying while these go between the seams and mainly electric orange. [CAC REF 00]

Lack of Clear Matrix

“You would be surprised how many people have Alleys with their CAC's.” [CAC REF 25] How do you know it is not a CAC? The reason is the colors; an Alley trait is clear mixed in the color. [CAC REF 24] “Specifically, this is not the clear on the marble as a color, but clear added to the color to stretch it out. With clear added to color, more marbles can be made for less money. Clear glass is less costly to produce than opaque color, more marbles per dollar. One way to tell CAC marbles from others is that CAC did not mix clear with opaque on their opaque glass marbles. CAC marbles have great separation of color; no blending means striking color contrast, this also makes great flame marbles!” [CAC REF 26]


“That salmon and white is a classic CAC combo; not real HTF, but not easy either.” [CAC REF 69]

“That is CAC; look at the powder blues.” [CAC REF 124] “Because it has light blue, that kicks it into the CAC box?” [CAC REF 80] “It's the very opaque white and crystal blue that seals the identification of CAC over Alley or Ravens.” [CAC REF 90]
“We have long thought these were CAC. Ron Shepherd has a few of them also, we both determined CAC. With the latest Alley dig, the Alleys red/white/blue shows that the white is not right [to be a CAC], nor is the red.” [CAC REF 91]

Glass – CAC.

On transparents, CAC base glass will be very clear and have bubbles [CAC REF 49]

Christensen Agate Company the transparent colored glass on/in CAC swirls is generally so crystal clear. [CAC REF 39]

Orange Peel

On the orange peel family of CACs, the orange peel is mainly on the top pole with electric yellow underlying while these go between the seams and mainly electric orange. Although I have one on a black base with electric yellow orange and green [CAC REF 84]
“The first reference to the term "ORANGE PEEL" was for a specific Christensen Agate that was in Grist’s book circa 1993 (or earlier?). Check for a large photo of a group shot of CAC's. I think the first three ID'd upper left were called Orange Peels. I'm not one to get crazy about names but I expect that is where the name first was given credence. Who told Mr. Grist that was the name?” [CAC REF 123]


“A little tidbit, CAC did not use or have Oxblood in their marbles.” [CAC REF 95] Christensen Agate did not use Oxblood. [CAC REF 133] CAC did not use oxblood in their marbles, they did use a brown that resembles oxblood, but is not. [CAC REF 134] “And if you see oxblood, you can rule out CAC. [CAC REF 146]

This means that any Cornelian or “Brick” will not be Christensen Agate / CAC.

Ultraviolet (UV)

Question: Do all (or most) CAC transparent swirls glow?
Answer: No. But a lot of time, their "clear" will [glow]. [CAC REF 145]

Aventurine (AV)

Although marble collectors look for aventurine, most manufacturers tried to eliminate AV. The better quality glass did not have AV. Thus, you should not expect to find AV on CACs. [CAC REF 40]
“If the marble is not Heaton or Cairo, and CAC does not have aventurine ... then what is left? Alley?” [CAC REF 00]

Pattern Traits – CAC

Chrissy's have the most bizarre interior action of most any company. [CAC REF 05]

“Notice the striations to the glass and most of the time the white will fluoresce like CAC should, you can see the flip backs as well especially on the amber and peach.” [CAC REF 49]
“The ribbons are fat and dive deep and fluoresce orange (like most CAC I have found).” [CAC REF 49]

“It is bright heavy white that puts me in mind of Ravenswood or CAC, and the separation of colors and wavy or "crinkly" look to the edges of the ribbons is a CAC trait.” [CAC REF 62]

CAC. Single Color Marbles

Christensen Agate Company may have produced the usual assortment of transparent and opaque one-colored game marbles, single color opaques and clearies. CAC did produce a “moonie.”

"World's Best Moon"
"The last Christensen marble, and arguably the least collected, is the ""World's Best Moon,"" so named by the company. These single-stream opaque marbles have an opalescent white base that is translucent and which glows orange under illumination. The Christensen Agate version tends to be brighter than the Akro Agate version and have a slightly bluish tinge (very rarely the marble will actually be light blue). [CAC REF 148] [CAC REF 149]
The Christensen Agate version tends to have tiny air bubbles inside it (which are not always present), which the Akro version does not. [CAC REF 149]
Akro Agate Moonies tend to have tiny open ""fisheyes"" into the marble; these areas will be clear while the remainder of the glass is cloudy." [CAC REF 00]

Still can’t tell the difference? “Buy as Akro and sell as CAC, LOL. CAC will always get more money.” [CAC REF 150]

CAC. Guineas, Cyclones and Cobras

“World’s Best Guineas"

“There are few machine made marbles that are as completely swathed in awe and reverence by collectors as the Christensen "World's Best Guinea," which was named, it has been said, because it reminded workers at the factory of the colors of the guinea hens which roamed the company grounds.” [CAC REF 151]

“Guineas are always transparent-based. Clear is the most common, followed by cobalt blue and amber. Red and green (purple or opaque black) examples have been reported but are exceedingly rare. The outer decoration is huge palette of vivid colors, which like onionskins can appear as spots or pulled spots into slashes. The marble will have opaque colored splotches / flecks of glass melted and stretched on the surface originating from, and terminating at, one or two seams. The colors are usually a combination of light blue, light green, yellow, orange, lavender, and white, though sometimes only some (as few as two) of these colors will occur. Often most of the surface of the marble is covered, though sometimes there are large clear areas. The colors will also be found inside the marble on occasion. The value of a Guinea is also affected by the number of colors on the surface and the intricacy of the pattern.” [CAC REF 00]

Teardrop guineas
contain large spots of color

Swirled guineas
bands of colors

Even rarer, a Guinea-Cyclone will have the characteristics of the Cyclone, but in these there will be color on the surface and in the interior of the marble, often all on one side. The interior colors will be heavily swirled, not simply floating inside.

Big Guineas
Two of the largest known Guineas are now located at
Lee’s Legendary Marble Museum in York, Nebraska, owned by Lee Batterton. This marble museum has over $1,000,000 in marbles on display. As soon as you walk into the museum, the following three guineas are on display in a special case:

• The pee-wee is ¾ inch clear-based Guinea.
• Next is a 15/16 inch clear-based Guinea.
• Next is a 1 inch clear-based Guinea-Cyclone.
[CAC REF 35]

“It is emphasized that all three of these variations have recently been reproduced by marble artists, who knowingly make them to allow their distribution to collectors as the genuine item. Caution is a necessity for anyone wanting to purchase a genuine Guinea or variation thereof.” [CAC REF 111]
[On a reproduction marble,] “the surface has a kind of rippled effect, the colors are bright but are stretched a little more than normal and sometimes will have a dark(burnt) spot in them, and the absence of a seam(s) is a dead give-a-way.” [CAC REF 111]

“They look so good in hand, but the spiral is a dead giveaway.” [CAC REF 114]

“The dark spots in the center of many of the color spots as a dead giveaway it was made with a torch. The clear area also has indications of it being the area it was held while being worked. Something a buyer on eBay can do is check out a seller’s previous auctions to decide if they know marbles well enough to let a 300 dollar marble go off in a group. It is often found to be a classic setup.” [CAC REF 114]

CAC. Slags

For at least a short period of time early in the company’s history, marbles were hand- gathered prior to the implementation of a feed system. Opaques, slags, swirls, and cobras have been found that exhibit hand-gathered “9”s and “tails”. [CAC REF 38]
The construction of hand- gathered slags noticeably differs from machine-made slags. Hand- gathered slags often show the “9”s and “tails”. Although a somewhat contentious definition for a CAC slag, (roughly speaking) a slag is white striping glass in a transparent matrix. Many collectors confuse machine-made slags with Striped Transparents. Two seams with striping between the seams do not make a Striped Transparent; it must be a colored stripe (not white).

“The termination of the ribbon look CAC to me. Also you can see a stippling or slight orange peel on the surface... CAC. Furthermore, many of the CAC slags DO have a lot of bubbles. Could they be Peltier? Sure, but probably not the bigger ones, but for sure the smaller ones. See if the white fluoresces on the surface a super bright white and see if the surface of the red goes hot orange.....many times, not’s CAC.” [CAC REF 74]
“Due to the large amount of white on the interior of the marbles, his box was produced by CAC. Also the appearance of numerous (9's) and less bubbles in the majority of the red.” [CAC REF 74]
“Two seams would likely be a CAC slag. Also that wiggle in the striping glass is characteristic of CACs.” [CAC REF 74]

“Some CAC slags ARE basically striped transparents, but not as in the typical CAC striped transparents. Red is a rare base for a true CAC striped transparents. The CAC striped transparents has more than just white; there must be at least two different colors on the outside of the marble (usually both are not white). There are exceptions to this, too. (Yellow on amber base or blue lace CAC striped transparents for example). Some slags may have more than one color on the outside, and some refer to those as multicolored slags. For example, a purple slag with white and electric yellow swirled in on the outside might be called a multicolored error slag.” [CAC REF 75]
CAC slags often have a "tail" that appears to come from a seam.
Some can even have a definite tail, without a “nine.” [CAC REF 110]

Pattern Traits – CAC Slags
Numerous slim parallel layers on a slag are called “Sand layers.” [CAC REF 00]

CAC Slags - fine lines
There are many CAC slags with fine lines. If it has only one cutoff, with loops on either side, this would indicate CAC. [CAC REF 138]

CAC Peach (Slags only)
Christensen was the only company to produce a peach colored slag. Keyword is slag. Others have produced pink swirls, but the peach slags are rather hard to find. The peach slag should look quite pink. The pink has a somewhat orange tint to it, but should not be confused with the color apricot.

A lot of confusion exists when trying to define "peach," though. [CAC REF 126] There are gradations of CAC color: amber through to peach. For some, it is not easy to know where to draw the line. Expect to see some pink shades if it is really a true peach color. [CAC REF 131] The peach slag has much density in the color, less of a deeper hue, than what one expects to see. [CAC REF 127] Christiansen Agate "peach" is actually a very nice (and surprising) pink. [CAC REF 132] The "peach" is far more pink than "apricot," which is the color usually mistaken for CAC's peach, although "apricot" is not a common slag color, either. [CAC REF 126]
Once you have in hand what he means by peach, though, you'll never mistake it for anything else! [CAC REF 126] If you do not have another for comparison, do not exclude peach. [CAC REF 130]

The worst part about the peach CACs is that they are notoriously hard to photograph, and tend to wash out to amber. [CAC REF 128] It's very hard to photograph and have it show up in its true color. [CAC REF 132]

Case Study. Slags - Separating CAC and Germans

Figure ^^ Peach – CAC (left), German (right)
“Here's an example that I purchased from Alan Basinet as being "peach", but it is a bit on the amber side (and maybe tending towards being a snotty rather that a 2-seam striped transparent). The next is a German (true) peach example. If you look closely, you can see that the German one has a base that is actually misted - strands of transparent colored glass in a clear base.” [CAC REF 129] To distinguish the two, remember to come back to the glass. Christensen Agate worked with Cambridge Glass Company and had excellent quality glass; expect extreme clarity without a misted look.
Peach shades can vary. CAC is not the only company who made peach-based marbles; Ravenswood did also. [CAC REF 02]
“CAC is the only company that made peach-based SLAGS. The only other companies who produced slags (leaving out a handful of tiny, short-lived mostly Ohio companies that produced transitionals, some of which were slags) were MFC, Akro, and Peltier; they didn't have CAC's peach.” [CAC REF 03]
There are gradations of CAC color, from amber through to peach. For some, it is not easy to know where to draw the line. Expect to see some pink shades if it is really peach. [CAC REF 85]
“You know a peach slag when you see one; they are undeniably peach with a really light pink hue.” [CAC REF 86]

Case Study. Slags - Separating CAC and MFC
Here are some hand-gathered slags. In the first pic, the purple is MFC and was found together in a small batch that were all distinctively MFC. The red is likely CAC. One small and subtle difference is the "chevrons" in the striping glass on the red, which I am told is more likely to appear on CAC. The second pic is of a "crease-pontil" transitional, which I believe is the type that has led people astray in reporting MFC red in the past. ... Roger [CAC REF 103]

CAC. Striped Opaques and Striped Transparents.

CAC is a beloved company that compels exceptions. For some reason, machine-made marbles by CAC contradict any “slag” definition, because they have marbles with two seams, opaque bases, and multiple colors that collectors still call “slags”. Confused?

CAC has made marbles with two seams, that folks regularly call “slags”. They come in two flavors – those with a transparent base, but also with an opaque base. Personally, I would not call them slags, but by a more concise name of Striped Transparent and Striped Opaques.

Additionally, these striped marbles belie the “slag” definition by having color, often more than one color, and “electric” to boot.

Yet, despite these anomalies, folks continue to call these marbles “slags.”
Christensen Agate Company produced a marble similar to the swirls. These were an opaque or transparent base with a series of color bands on the surface of only one side of the marble, and little or no color on the other side or inside. Usually, the band colors are “electric” and the base can be either opaque or transparent. These are referred to as Striped Opaques and Striped Transparents. [CAC REF 01]
Another description is: these marbles will have a base of one color, on top of which there will be one or more opaque colors forming stripes across the surface, running from one side of the marble and terminating on the other at a seam. Often the point of origin is another seam that is also very obvious, though sometimes it is not so noticeable. More often than not, the stripes on these marbles will be "electric," that is, they will be especially vibrant. [CAC REF 01]
It very well could be a transparent CAC. I have smaller ones in this color. While normally you would think 7/8 is out of the question for CAC, I have three of these in blue, Vaseline and green that are not German. I Think of them as the early slags. [CAC REF 102]

Pattern Traits – CAC Striped Opaques and Striped Transparents

The “S” Pattern
One CAC trait is and “S” pattern on two seam marbles. The thing about the "S" is that it will appear as if a stripe from one side will loop around and end up on the other side of the seam; it usually only happens on CAC. [CAC REF 101]
The glass on most two seam CAC's striped opaques have the "S" shape starting on the top of one seam and finishing on the opposite side of the other seam. [CAC REF 23]

Look for the “S” on striped opaques and striped transparents, any with two seams. “As far as I know, CAC is the only company who has that weird ‘S’.” [CAC REF 83]

Striped Transparents
Striped Transparents have colored ribbons, not white. [CAC REF 78]
The two-seam slags (CAC or German) have white striping on a transparent base. Some people call these "striped transparent", but others reserve the term for ones that have another striping color other than white (or additional to white). [CAC REF 79]
Striped transparents have striping colors other than white. [CAC REF 117]

Striped Opaques
Striped Opaques have an opaque base with one or more opaque colored striping glass.
“Striped Opaques don't exhibit much in the way of a general out-of-roundness. That is generally attributed to CAC flames.” [CAC REF 122]
single seam Striped opaques are usually hand-gathered? Galen brought that point up a few years back and I can't find many examples to dispute him. It's a great observation.” [CAC REF 18]

Comparing CAC with Germans
<< More work needed.>>

CAC. Swirls
For more images, see the Box of 100 later in this thread.
The most common Christensen Agate Company marbles are Swirls. Christensen Agate produced swirls in a wide variety of different patterns and color combinations. The marbles were made by mixing two or more glass colors in a single furnace. Because each color was a different density, they did not melt together, but rather created strata. Since the molten glass was the consistency of molasses, the individual stratum remained as the glass was turned into marbles.
There are an almost endless variety of colors and patterns in Christensen Agate swirls. Most swirls are in the 9/16” to 3/4” range. Peewees are slightly rarer and marbles over 3/4” are very rare.
White based swirls are the most common, but there are also many examples of swirls with no white in them. The marbles can be two-color or multiple colors. There do not seem to be any swirls with more than five colors in them. Generally, each color is opaque, although there are some marbles that have at least one transparent color. The colors can also be dull, or very bright. Bright colors are referred to as “electric.”
“One last note about Christensen Agate swirls is their lack of seams. Seamed examples are known as Striped Opaques or Striped Transparents. On exception is called a "Diaper Fold." In these, there will be a single seam, and this will form an indention into the marble, into which the swirls extend.“ [CAC REF 142]
CAC transparent swirls are VERY hard to identify. A few traits: [CAC REF 42]
1. Mottling on the swirl is when the color separates slightly and splotches. This is indicative of many CAC and Alley. [CAC REF 42]
2. Glass flow and movement (hard to describe in writing). [CAC REF 42]
3. Notice that the underside of the ribbons is corrugated or ribbed. This happens with other manufacturer’s transparents, but not nearly as often as CAC. [CAC REF 42]

Flames. On rare occasions, because the molten glass mixed to form the swirls formed strata (owing to the varying densities of the different colors). The swirl patterns form a row, or two opposing rows, that look like the flames that were painted on the sides of hot rods during the 1950s. Christensen swirls formed "flames," so-called because the color strata actually appears on the surface of the marble as fine flames. Most collectors seem to agree that in order to be considered a flame, a marble must have at least four "stacked" flames.
Turkeys. Sometimes the swirls will form a loop known to collectors as a "turkey." These truly do resemble the head of a turkey, in that they swirl upward from an oblique angle, then loop back around in the opposite direction, and finally parallel the beginning of the swirl. Rarely, turkey swirls will even have an "eye" of a third color.
It has a great turkey and the ruffled ribbons, [CAC REF 43]
Handgathered. One of the hardest Christensen Agate to find is called the Handgathered. These are found in single or two-color. They exhibit a distinct “9” and tail pattern and are the earliest Christensen Agates produced. [CAC REF 01]
Diaper-fold. Diaper-fold, a name applied by collectors today, refers to a swirl that is a single seam pattern. When viewed from the side, the swirl pattern looks like a diaper on a baby. [CAC REF 01]
End of Day. Color towards the outside
Shooter "Swirls". Christensen Agate Co. Shooter "Swirls" are all 3/4" or larger. Shooter Christensens are a rare find.
Opaque Swirls. Christensen Agate Co. "Swirls" are prized by many for their vivid colors. These are all opaque swirls, some of which exhibit flaming.
Multi-color swirls. Vary from two color to (very rare) four colors; Non-white swirls, or clear mixed with white
Transparent swirls. Transparent swirls are more rare than opaque swirls and are more limited in their color combinations. Clear is the most common transparent base color, with some transparent green, yellow or blue examples known. The most common swirl colors are usually electric yellow and orange. Lavender has also been seen. These marbles are fairly rare. The clear glass on such swirls often has a syrup-like effect, looking much like glycerin or corn syrup. The second color can be opaque, translucent or transparent. That color is usually electric. [CAC REF 29]

Christensen Agate Co. "Swirls" are prized by many for their vivid colors. These are all opaque swirls, some of which exhibit flaming. [CAC REF 28]
“It is the one Nola got in Canton. The reason she got it was that she thought it may be Ravenswood. It does have the longer rounded curved swirls and no amount of sharp swirl tips, turkeys. Injected thoughts is what we need more of. Once again very small amount with marbles is 100%. There are exceptions with many. Just like the Akro and MK swirls. I believe CAC made several of these more rounded ends, longer curves than we think. In hand John Snyder and my first impressions were CAC. Something about the glass in hand and all the colors, including the white, all being rich, just said, very high quality. I cannot check it, but I will ask Nola to check it with a blacklight.” [CAC REF 58]
“Not all CAC white fluoresces brighter, but the marble in question has very bright white and deep blue for those other companies IMHO” [CAC REF 59]
In hand the white is the super clean, bright white, the blue is the deep crisp blue and the red was typical CAC. I am sticking with CAC on this one. [CAC REF 61]
It could very well be Akro, that one view looks like an Akro seam.. Akro did a LOT of yellow and blues. If
it were cac, i would expect a nice squared off cut.. [CAC REF 67]
Often confused with this type CAC swirl.....notice in this sample, the swirling can almost look identical but one dead giveaway would be the "crisp" edges to the swirls.....Another giveaway is sometimes more of a solid black in some samples....(Joe Street pics) [CAC REF 162]

Pattern Traits – CAC Swirls
The following traits shown in Alley swirls are discussed in more detail below
• CAC Flames
• CAC Turkeys
• CAC Road-and-tunnel / The loopback
• CAC Cutoff
• CAC Mottling
• CAC Corrugation
• CAC Chute
• Other

CAC Flames

CAC marbles tend to have a bit more flames than other makers. Occasionally, marbles with these patterns are called Flames by collectors today and are rare.

I think CAC because of the way the (flame) tips come to an end, but then back again in some places, like it twists like a ribbon right before they get cut. The blue reminds me more of the alleys I have than the CACs, so it's a toss-up for me. Hard to say for sure sometimes. [CAC REF 155]

CAC Turkeys

“Turkeys” was a name used exclusively for CAC for many, many years. [CAC REF 119]
Some CAC swirls will form a loop known to collectors as a "turkey." These truly do resemble the head of a turkey, in that they swirl upward from an oblique angle, then loop back around in the opposite direction, and finally parallel the beginning of the swirl. Rarely, turkey swirls will even have an "eye" of a third color.
Turkeys will exhibit the lines coming from the wattle area over or from a beak. A true CAC Turkey will have that feature. Others companies are just a fold that sort of resembles a poor CAC Turkey. Over the last few years though, any fold that sort of resembles these has been called a “Turkey” (Ebay Marketing usually). [CAC REF 119]

CAC Road-and-tunnel / loopback

This is a feature that is seen at the marble seam. It is a feature that resembles a road going through a tunnel in the mountainside.

The "road and tunnel" at the seams says CAC or Euro. [CAC REF 112]

CAC Cutoff

The striping glass cutoff for CAC is very straight and crisp. While older Alleys may have a very straight cut lines, they also may be rounded, or no straight. The reverse is not true; CAC is always fairly straight.

CAC Mottling

CAC Corrugation

CAC Chute

“You do not see many if any CAC with drizzle.” [CAC REF 94] Be sure not to confuse the “tail” on a hand-gathered marble as ‘drizzle’, because CAC hand-gathered marbles will often have a tail.

Study the ribbon construction it's the same for most CAC transparent swirls. [CAC REF 156]

The notorious CAC “Snotty”

A snotty will have swirls on the surface. [CAC REF 41]

“Some similarities and also some differences are seen between CAC and Ravenswood. Similar is the action of the ribbon and the base glass to some degree. Differences is the fact that the snotty is one color besides the base color and the ribbon in the Snotties look....for a lack of better word and a little on the gross side......creamy. The ribbons in the Snotties seem to be thick and very smooth-looking like creamy peanut butter, whereas the Ravens which tend to be somewhat ridged and or stringy and many times somewhat translucent ribbon-wise.” [CAC REF 48]
Ravens made a marble that is the closest to a CAC snotty, but the glass is different. [CAC REF 45]
The CAC Snotties do not have a CAC single seam; it is actually hard to even find a seam. [CAC REF 46]

“Here are my Snottie types [CAC REF 49]
• Pic 1: Peach slag snottie, brown/tan clear based, pink ribbons / yellow base, and blue lace on amber [CAC REF 49]
• Pic 2: Green/gray on clear, electric yellow on clear (see cut) , electric/white on clear, amber snottie [CAC REF 49]
• Pic 3: White on blue, and red/white on clear” [CAC REF 49]

Comparing CAC with Alley

CAC vs Alley cut marks
The Alley and CAC will each have a curved flip back, where the cut is performed and the cut lays on top of the flip. [CAC REF 159]

Early Alleys (like the orange and yellow in pic one) have a cut similar to CAC, but are slightly different. [CAC REF 159]
The early Alley had a slightly curved cut that exactly mimics the curve of the flip, but sometimes it looks straight (like the yellow and orange)...until you see the CaCs. When in doubt you need to know colors, colors, colors. [CAC REF 159]

The Alley has two types of cuts IMHO. These are all just tips. [CAC REF 159]
CAC has a straight cut for the most part.
• Sometimes the flip is straight, too; sometimes [the flip is] curved.
• Sometimes the flip is buried and you only see a slight cut.
• Sometimes the flip is exaggerated, but the cut is still straight.

On some CACs there is a little "v" above the straight cut (see pic 2, the yellow/red/orange/brown example). This is another clue. On transparent swirls this "v" will sometimes fan out like a seashell.

CAC Blue and Yellow versus Alley "West Virginian" versus JABO, Inc.

Comparing Factory Made versus Torched Cullet marbles

Advertising and Packaging - Christensen Agate Company

Christensen Agate Company. Box No. 15

The label reads
25 California Agate Marbles No. 15.
Cut and Polished from Native Stones
Made in Los Angeles, U.S.A.

Christensen Agate Company. Box No. 50
Christensen Agate Box labeled “No. 50 Favorite Marble Assortment” contains many marbles and a marble bag. This one sold for $1300 USD.

Christensen Agate Company. Coffin Box
The Christensen Agate Coffin Box contained slags in graduated sizes. It was made in the late-1920s, but little is known about this rare box. Some have speculated that this was part of a salesman display to show the variety of sizes.

Christensen Agate Company. Box - 25 Count
Christensen Agate distributed marbles itself, including these boxes of 25 marbles in a variety of sizes. Shown below are sizes No. 00, 0, and 1.

Christensen Agate Company. Box - 100 Count
This Christensen Agate Box of 100 was sold at a Morphy's Auction for $23,000 USD.

J. E. Albright Company
Christensen Agate produced a variety of marble styles. These marbles were distributed by the company itself, through the J. E. Albright Company of Ravenna, Ohio, and through the M. Gropper and Sons Company of New York City. [CAC REF 01]

M. Gropper & Sons
Box Set of No. 0 National Onyx Toy Marbles
Description from M. Gropper & Son Inc. in New York, New York. Gropper was the distributor for Christensen Agate. This box set contains 90 Christensen Agate slags and ten Christensen American Agates. Condition Marbles (9.2) Box (Excellent). Size Marble: 5/8" Dia. [CAC REF 27]

The following is a box of 100 slags jobbered by M. Gropper & Son Inc. Note that it is stamped “FAVORITE” and that Gropper is the “Sole Distributor.”

Company Dig sites

Christensen Agate Company digs

Appendix A. Official Christensen Agate Company Names

Descriptions and images follow the list.
• "American Agate"
• "Bloodie"
• "Guineas"

"American Agate"
One swirl named by CAC is the American Agate. These marbles will have either an opaque white base or an opalescent white base (opalescent glass is translucent and will glow orange when held to a light). Mixed in with the white are swirls of translucent electric red to transparent electric orange. Therefore, American Agates have a degree of variation in them and one can find several combinations of the colors. The giveaway is the electric swirling. Many of these are hand-gathered.

Usually if the AA's have a line, it's really precise and not creased. [CAC REF 107]
“CAC American Agates - translucent with bubbles is an indicator of a CAC” [CAC REF 00]

“American Agates (AA) are CAC. Often the white is mixed with clear and sometimes picks up some red to look pinkish. The red can sometimes be brownish. They are hand-gathered, but usually have a much more "sloppy" look to them rather than a neat "9". ... Roger” [CAC REF 166]

Specialized types of swirls were named by the company itself, such as the "Bloodie." Some collectors will call any marble with transparent red and white a "Bloodie," but this marble will always have an opaque white base, with both translucent brown and transparent red swirls. These are rare, and often hasty collectors will think they own one when in fact the marble is something entirely different (often Ravenswood swirls with these same colors are thought to be Bloodies).

CAC Bloodie, when blacklighted, the white glows.

Guineas are covered in detail above. Here is another photo, just for fun.

Appendix B. Unofficially Named Christensen Agate Company

Over the course of time, the game of marbles has produced its own lingo. Players had created ‘pet names’ for their individual marbles, or general marble categories. Some of these continue to the current day. Additionally, marble collectors have grouped like marbles together and new colloquial names have been invented and come into use. Following is a list of names given to Christensen Agate Company marbles that have not originated at the factory.

“I just hate seeing any non-factory name put to a CAC marble. All it does is drive up the price. The amber and blue swirls were 5-10 dollar marbles until they started calling them blue laces. Keep the names for all the overpriced Pelts. Peace, Galen, founding member of NHA.“ (Name Haters Association). [CAC REF 143]

“The names referenced from Alan's site are just what he said was tossed around by collectors. Since they were mentioned on Alan’s site, the context no longer makes a difference because all future references does not mention the context, only that the name is from Alan's board. Thereafter, the name is given legitimacy, which may not have been Alan's intention. I'm not trying to be argumentative, just pointing out how the name game intentionally or unintentionally gains momentum.” [CAC REF 144]

Thus, the context given in this post is not to provide legitimacy to the names, but to provide context to the names, if the name is stumbled upon. In fact, it has been difficult to obtain images for some names that were mentioned. As mentioned above, sometimes the name changes over time, or is generalized, and no longer means the same to all folks involved. Names have been thrown around by collectors for Christensen swirl varieties. A few of these have gained recognition, but some remain as obscure terms, known only to a few. Such types include:

• Christensen Agate Company. Bluebells
• Christensen Agate Company. Blue Azurites
• Christensen Agate Company. Blue Devils
• Christensen Agate Company. Blue Laces
• Christensen Agate Company. Blue Rays
• Christensen Agate Company. Cobras
• Christensen Agate Company. Coral
• Christensen Agate Company. Cyclones
• Christensen Agate Company. Figers
• Christensen Agate Company. Gray Coat
• Christensen Agate Company. Jennies
• Christensen Agate Company. Layered sand
• Christensen Agate Company. Lemon merengue
• Christensen Agate Company. Orange Peels
• Christensen Agate Company. Red Devils

• Christensen Agate Company. Rockets
• Christensen Agate Company. Snotty
• Christensen Agate Company. Submarines
o Christensen Agate Company. Tanks (Submarines Tanks)

A Christensen called a Bluebell has a light transparent blue base with opaque white. [CAC REF 142]

Blue Azurites[CAC REF 142]

Blue Devils
These are CACs with a transparent cobalt blue base with white and yellow patch. [CAC REF 142]

Blue devil is almost a patch-like marble with electric yellow and white, or just electric yellow. The blue ray is a cobalt base with electric orange and sometimes yellow striping much like a striped transparent. The blue devil color goes deep. [CAC REF 140]
“Basically these are a single seam patch marble. Sometimes they only show the yellow. The best ones show a nice mix of the two colors and they often show an "x". The seams are obvious and very indicative of normal cac seams.” [CAC REF 167]

Blue Laces
A Christensen called Blue Laces has a transparent amber base with light blue. [CAC REF 142]
“Originally, a CAC blue lace was a two seam striped transparent. Later it was a swirl. Both amber base with CACs light blue. I have only seen one of the 2 seamers. The CAC swirls some call Blue Laces have thinner swirling and cleaner base glass.” [CAC REF 141]

Blue Rays
These are CACs with a transparent cobalt blue with opaque bright orange; Opaque red both on and underneath the surface of the blue glass. [CAC REF 142]
Blue devil is almost a patch-like marble with electric yellow and white, or just electric yellow. The blue ray is a cobalt base with electric orange and sometimes yellow striping much like a striped transparent. The blue devil color goes deep. [CAC REF 140]

Cobras are cyclones with thin twisted strand throughout the clear

Corals have a very clear transparent green base, with an opaque salmon-colored swirl. Note, this name is not exclusive to CAC, but traditionally implies this color combination.

Cyclones look like Guineas with all the stretched flecks of colored glass inside the marble. They have only been found in clear base and transparent blue. Some Cobras have all the color on one end of the marble and are obviously hand-gathered. These are exceptionally rare. [CAC REF 01]

These are CACs with an opaque base yellow, orange, green, and brown. [CAC REF 142]

Gray Coat
A Christensen called a Gray Coat is a dug marble. [CAC REF 54]

“There are similar Akro ones. The attributes are from other dug ones and halves I have seen. This one came from Estepp and have been confirmed by other Christensen collectors in hand. They are dug.” [CAC REF 54]

Layered sand
These are two or more color opaques, that look like layered sand are in bottles. Numerous slim parallel layers. [CAC REF 142]

Lemon Merengue
“CAC made slags with a non-fluorescent yellow, which collectors call "lemon merengue". They are quite rare. In person, the color is quite amazing. I remember finding a batch of slags, and this one jumped right out into my hand.” [CAC REF 96]

Orange Peels
These are CACs with a black opaque base with an orange and yellow patch. [CAC REF 142]

Red Jennies
[CAC REF 142] Images show a transparent red base with white striping glass.

Red Devils
These are CACs with a transparent red base with yellow patch. [CAC REF 142]

The combo of black and electric orange used to be called rockets by the old time collectors of CAC, especially when the orange is dominant. [CAC REF 72] Some say that the black needs to be translucent. [CAC REF 142]

These are covered in more detail in the CAC Swirl section. Another image is shown here.

These are CACs with a transparent base (usually green) swirled with yellow, or yellow and red; some of which visible beneath surface. [CAC REF 142]

Tanks (Submarines Tanks)
These are CACs are Submarines with Army colors (transparent green and brown). [CAC REF 142]

Appendix D. CAC Patents

“The mention of a CAC machine has been talked about ever since the "exotics" surfaced. The pelt machine was real. They were done by Boyce Lundstrom.“ [CAC REF 169]

Patent US 802495 A
This was not a CAC machine, but is its predecessor; it is presented here for reference to the following patents, which are CAC-related. Patent US 802495 A is titled “Machine for making spherical bodies or balls” by Martin F Christensen [CAC REF 170].

Patent US 1488817 A
Patent US 1488817 A is titled “Machine for forming spherical bodies” by Howard M Jenkins, president of Christensen Agate. It was filed Nov. 11, 1922 and patent was granted Apr. 1, 1924. This patent looks like a set of eight MFC rollers, with a mechanism to feed these rollers, disposed at a slight angle, constantly changing axes of rotation.
“This invention relates to apparatus or machines for molding or otherwise tormwheels so mounted that their grooves cooperate molding or otherwise the material or body operated on the axes or the wheels are disposed at a slight angle one to the other so that the body being operated on is turned on constantly changing axes of rotation whereby it is molded (when plastic material is used) into true spherical form. “ [CAC REF 171].

Patent US 1596879 A
Patent US 1596879 A is titled “Machine for forming spherical bodies” by Howard M Jenkins, president of Christensen Agate. It was filed Apr. 14, 1924 and patent was granted Aug. 24, 1926. This patent has nine (9) workstations set equidistantly about a circular work space, which “delivers uniform gobs of glass at regular intervals of time.”
“This invention relates to machines for molding or otherwise forming spherical bodies and an object of this invention is to produce an improved machine embodying the principle of operation of the machine of Patent Number 1,488,817, issued to me on April 1, 1924; a machine of greater capacity and higher efficiency than the machine of said patent.
A further object is to produce a machine embodying the principle of operation of the machine of said patent which may be operated in conjunction with a glass feeder adapted to deliver uniform gobs of glass at regular intervals of time.” [CAC REF 172]

All About Marbles. (2011-2017). Retrieved November 05, 2017, from

[CAC REF 00] No reference was captured when the information was recorded. Probabilities are that this information was provided in the Marble Identification forum on AAM).
[CAC REF 01]
[CAC REF 02]
Re: Opinions? Postby FeelingMarbleous » Wed Mar 03, 2010 2:04 pm
[CAC REF 03]
Re: Opinions? Postby ann » Wed Mar 03, 2010 4:44 pm
[CAC REF 04]
[CAC REF 05]
viewtopic.php?f=5&t=21396. Re: Backlight fun !, Postby 1Alleynut » Mon Dec 09, 2013 4:05 pm
[CAC REF 06]
viewtopic.php?f=7&t=21376. Re: Opinions, please, New postby threefingersflat » Sat Dec 07, 2013 9:53 pm
[CAC REF 07]
viewtopic.php?f=17&t=11426. CAC Construction Zone been thinking.........., Postby buckeye » Thu Dec 29, 2011 11:49 am
[CAC REF 08]
viewtopic.php?f=17&t=11426. CAC Construction Zone been thinking.........., Postby buckeye » Thu Dec 29, 2011 11:49 am
[CAC REF 09]
viewtopic.php?f=17&t=11426. Re: CAC Construction Zone been thinking.......... Postby Al Oregon » Thu Dec 29, 2011 3:09 pm
[CAC REF 10]
viewtopic.php?f=17&t=11426. Re: CAC Construction Zone been thinking..........Postby westcoast_dave » Thu Dec 29, 2011 3:20 pm
[CAC REF 11]
viewtopic.php?f=17&t=11426. Re: CAC Construction Zone been thinking.........., Postby buckeye » Thu Dec 29, 2011 3:29 pm
[CAC REF 12]
viewtopic.php?f=17&t=11426. Re: CAC Construction Zone been thinking.........., Postby buckeye » Thu Dec 29, 2011 3:29 pm
[CAC REF 13]
viewtopic.php?f=17&t=11426. Re: CAC Construction Zone been thinking.......... Postby Marble Whisperer » Thu Dec 29, 2011 4:02 pm
[CAC REF 14]
viewtopic.php?f=17&t=11426. Re: CAC Construction Zone been thinking.......... Postby David Chamberlain » Fri Dec 30, 2011 11:41 am
[CAC REF 15]
viewtopic.php?f=17&t=11426. Re: CAC Construction Zone been thinking.......... Postby browse4antiques » Wed Jan 11, 2012 9:35 pm
[CAC REF 16]
viewtopic.php?f=17&t=11426. Re: CAC Construction Zone been thinking.......... Postby Ilstmmrbls » Thu Jan 12, 2012 11:53 pm
[CAC REF 17]
viewtopic.php?f=17&t=11426. Re: CAC Construction Zone been thinking.......... Postby browse4antiques » Fri Jan 13, 2012 6:13 pm
[CAC REF 18]
viewtopic.php?f=17&t=11426. Re: CAC Construction Zone been thinking.......... Postby buckeye » Fri Jan 13, 2012 8:21 pm
[CAC REF 19]
viewtopic.php?f=17&t=11426. Re: CAC Construction Zone been thinking......... Postby browse4antiques » Fri Jan 13, 2012 11:45 pm
[CAC REF 20]
viewtopic.php?f=17&t=11426. Re: CAC Construction Zone been thinking.......... Postby Ilstmmrbls » Sat Jan 14, 2012 10:08 pm
[CAC REF 21]
viewtopic.php?f=17&t=11426. Re: CAC Construction Zone been thinking.......... Postby browse4antiques » Sun Jan 15, 2012 12:55 pm
[CAC REF 22]
viewtopic.php?f=17&t=11426. Re: CAC Construction Zone been thinking.........., Postby Shamrock_Marbles » Sun Jan 15, 2012 6:18 pm
[CAC REF 23]
viewtopic.php?f=17&t=11426. Re: CAC Construction Zone been thinking.........., Postby bigbambo » Sat May 05, 2012 9:53 am
[CAC REF 24]
viewtopic.php?f=17&t=950. Re: Christensen Agate Pictures. Postby I Love Marbles » Thu Mar 11, 2010 7:52 pm
[CAC REF 25]
viewtopic.php?f=17&t=950. Re: Christensen Agate Pictures. Postby FeelingMarbleous » Thu Mar 11, 2010 9:15 pm
[CAC REF 26]
viewtopic.php?f=17&t=950. Re: Christensen Agate Pictures. Postby I Love Marbles » Fri Mar 12, 2010 7:57 pm
[CAC REF 27] ... =3&lang=En.
[CAC REF 28] Opaque Swirls
[CAC REF 29] Transparent swirls
[CAC REF 30] Striped Opaques and Striped Transparents.
[CAC REF 31] lstmrbls
[CAC REF 32] Lstmrbls
[CAC REF 33] lstmmrbls
[CAC REF 34] ... 20%20swirl. Posted 25 February 2012 - 02:34 PM. CAC-MIKE
[CAC REF 35] ... 20%20swirl. Posted 14 February 2012 - 08:48 PM. CAC-MIKE
[CAC REF 36]
viewtopic.php?f=17&t=950, Christensen Agate Pictures & Info, Postby FeelingMarbleous » Mon Feb 22, 2010 3:23 pm
[CAC REF 37]
viewtopic.php?f=17&t=950. Christensen Agate Pictures & Info. Postby FeelingMarbleous » Mon Feb 22, 2010 3:23 pm
[CAC REF 38] ... tage%2Ftoy
[CAC REF 39] Re: maybe cac?? Postby ann » Tue Oct 16, 2012 3:00 pm
[CAC REF 40] Re: maybe cac?? Postby chucks_marbles » Tue Oct 16, 2012 12:22 pm
[CAC REF 41]
viewtopic.php?f=7&t=19661. Re: Old or new?. Postby Marble Whisperer » Fri Sep 13, 2013 9:58 am
[CAC REF 42] Re: Corrugation on CAC Snottys. Postby buckeye » Sun Jan 01, 2012 9:40 pm
[CAC REF 43]
viewtopic.php?f=5&t=13962. Re: Transparent based CAC's. Postby Marble Whisperer » Wed Sep 26, 2012 6:55 pm
[CAC REF 44]
viewtopic.php?f=5&t=13962. Re: Transparent based CAC's. Postby ann » Wed Sep 26, 2012 7:46 pm
[CAC REF 45]
viewtopic.php?f=5&t=13328. Re: CAC Snotty. Postby Marble Whisperer » Sat Sep 01, 2012 3:33 pm
[CAC REF 46]
viewtopic.php?f=7&t=1865. Re: another very cool swirl.... Postby zaboo » Wed May 19, 2010 10:38 pm
[CAC REF 47]
viewtopic.php?f=7&t=1865. Re: another very cool swirl.... Postby wvrons » Thu May 20, 2010 2:41 am
[CAC REF 48]
viewtopic.php?f=7&t=1865. Re: another very cool swirl.... Postby jeeperman12 » Thu May 20, 2010 6:50 pm
[CAC REF 49]
viewtopic.php?f=7&t=1865. Re: Re: another very cool swirl.... Postby buckeye » Sat May 22, 2010 5:19 pm » Sat May 22, 2010 5:30 pm
[CAC REF 50]
viewtopic.php?f=7&t=1865. Re: another very cool swirl.... Postby FeelingMarbleous » Sat May 22, 2010 5:36 pm
[CAC REF 51]
viewtopic.php?f=5&t=1053. Re: CAC Snotty. Postby jeeperman12 » Sun Feb 28, 2010 1:41 am
[CAC REF 52]
viewtopic.php?f=5&t=1053. Re: CAC Snotty. Postby Ilstmmrbls » Wed Mar 03, 2010 2:18 pm
[CAC REF 53]
viewtopic.php?f=5&t=1053. Re: Snotty color something ? Postby jeeperman12 » Tue Mar 02, 2010 1:16 am
[CAC REF 54]
viewtopic.php?f=5&t=12651. Re: Need these... Postby buckeye » Thu Jul 19, 2012 10:24 am, 3:59 pm
[CAC REF 55]
viewtopic.php?f=5&t=12651. Re: Need these... Postby David Chamberlain » Thu Jul 19, 2012 6:19 pm
[CAC REF 56]
viewtopic.php?f=7&t=9742. Re: Ravenswood?.....Alox? Postby Marble Whisperer » Tue Jan 17, 2012 10:39 pm
[CAC REF 57]
viewtopic.php?f=5&t=22590. Re: Craig- Alley-CAC-Ravenswood. New postby 1Alleynut » Sun Feb 23, 2014 8:52 am
[CAC REF 58]
viewtopic.php?f=5&t=22590. Re: Craig- Alley-CAC-Ravenswood. New postby wvrons » Sun Feb 23, 2014 12:21 pm
[CAC REF 59]
viewtopic.php?f=5&t=22590. Re: Craig- Alley-CAC-Ravenswood. New postby buckeye » Sun Feb 23, 2014 3:23 pm
[CAC REF 60]
viewtopic.php?f=5&t=22590. Re: Craig- Alley-CAC-Ravenswood. New postby Snyd » Mon Feb 24, 2014 9:20 am
[CAC REF 62]
viewtopic.php?f=7&t=22643. Re: CAC? New postby cheese » Mon Feb 24, 2014 11:18 pm
[CAC REF 63]
viewtopic.php?f=7&t=22593. Re: CAC or Alley? New postby Snyd » Tue Feb 25, 2014 2:47 pm
[CAC REF 64] Posted 26 November 2013 - 01:03 PM. lstmmrbls
[CAC REF 65] Posted 10 February 2014 - 01:41 PM. lstmmrbls
[CAC REF 66]
viewtopic.php?f=7&t=22738. Re: is this Alley or CAC? New postby wvrons » Mon Mar 03, 2014 11:26 am
[CAC REF 67]
viewtopic.php?f=7&t=19404. Re: cairo. Postby Marble Whisperer » Tue Aug 20, 2013 12:45 pm
[CAC REF 68]
viewtopic.php?f=7&t=18004. Re: CAC Bloodie, yes?? Postby jbuck » Fri May 17, 2013 12:47 pm
[CAC REF 69]
viewtopic.php?f=7&t=17853. Re: CAC maybe? Postby buckeye » Wed May 08, 2013 8:36 pm
[CAC REF 70]
viewtopic.php?f=7&t=19716. Re: CAC 2 seam Slag? 23/34. Postby browse4antiques » Sat Sep 14, 2013 5:28 pm
[CAC REF 71] Re: CAC or Ravenswood. Postby Marble Whisperer » Fri May 17, 2013 9:18 pm
[CAC REF 72]
viewtopic.php?f=7&t=20156. Re: Black and Orange. Postby buckeye » Thu Oct 10, 2013 8:10 pm
[CAC REF 73]
viewtopic.php?f=7&t=17227. Re: CAC?? Postby Marble Whisperer » Mon Mar 25, 2013 2:25 pm
[CAC REF 74]
viewtopic.php?f=7&t=19016. Re: CAC Slag? Postby browse4antiques » Sat Jul 20, 2013 12:58 pm
[CAC REF 75] Re: 4 marbles for ID help - Pelt CAC MK. Postby buckeye » Thu Aug 29, 2013 10:26 pm
[CAC REF 76]
viewtopic.php?f=7&t=20406. Re: Champion? Postby 99marbles131 » Sun Oct 20, 2013 11:34 am
[CAC REF 77]
viewtopic.php?f=7&t=21818. Re: cac or ravenswood. Postby Marble Whisperer » Sat Jan 11, 2014 11:34 pm
[CAC REF 78]
viewtopic.php?f=7&t=21204. Re: Another cool slag... Postby Marble Whisperer » Sun Nov 24, 2013 11:41 pm
[CAC REF 79]
viewtopic.php?f=7&t=21204. Re: Another cool slag... Postby browse4antiques » Wed Nov 27, 2013 8:53 pm
[CAC REF 80]
viewtopic.php?f=7&t=20406. Re: Champion? Postby Cedarman7 » Sun Oct 20, 2013 11:26 am
[CAC REF 81]
viewtopic.php?f=7&t=20406. Re: Champion? Postby cowdog » Sun Oct 20, 2013 9:06 pm
[CAC REF 82]
viewtopic.php?f=7&t=22778 . Re: R/Y Shooter Christensen? Alley? New? New postby cheese » Thu Mar 06, 2014 2:33 pm
[CAC REF 83]
viewtopic.php?f=7&t=20383. Re: ??????? OPINIONS. Postby Marble Whisperer » Sat Oct 19, 2013 9:05 am
[CAC REF 84]
viewtopic.php?f=7&t=20156. Re: Black and Orange. Postby buckeye » Thu Oct 10, 2013 11:38 pm
[CAC REF 85]
viewtopic.php?f=7&t=19716. Re: CAC 2 seam Slag? 23/34. Postby browse4antiques » Sat Sep 14, 2013 1:15 pm
[CAC REF 86]
viewtopic.php?f=7&t=19716. Re: CAC 2 seam Slag? 23/34. Postby Marble Whisperer » Sat Sep 14, 2013 4:26 pm
[CAC REF 87]
viewtopic.php?f=7&t=19661. Re: Old or new? Postby Marble Whisperer » Thu Sep 12, 2013 3:44 pm
[CAC REF 88]
viewtopic.php?f=7&t=19661. Re: Old or new? Postby Marble Whisperer » Fri Sep 13, 2013 9:58 am
[CAC REF 89]
viewtopic.php?f=7&t=19541. Re: Alley or cac. Postby browse4antiques » Tue Sep 03, 2013 4:10 pm
[CAC REF 90]
viewtopic.php?f=7&t=19541. Re: Alley or cac. Postby buckeye » Wed Sep 04, 2013 10:22 pm
[CAC REF 91]
viewtopic.php?f=7&t=19541. Re: Alley or cac. Postby Marble Whisperer » Thu Sep 05, 2013 12:02 pm
[CAC REF 92]
viewtopic.php?f=7&t=19484. Re: 3 new marbles - pls help identify. Postby Marble Whisperer » Wed Aug 28, 2013 6:29 pm
[CAC REF 93]
viewtopic.php?f=7&t=19484. Re: 3 new marbles - pls help identify. Postby Marble Whisperer » Wed Aug 28, 2013 8:59 pm
[CAC REF 94]
viewtopic.php?f=7&t=19453. Re: Very Busy Swirl??? Postby wvrons » Sun Aug 25, 2013 11:32 pm
[CAC REF 95]
viewtopic.php?f=7&t=19402. Re: ?? Postby Marble Whisperer » Tue Aug 20, 2013 12:42 pm
[CAC REF 96]
viewtopic.php?f=7&t=18705. Re: Golden Swirl. Postby browse4antiques » Wed Jun 26, 2013 10:39 pm
[CAC REF 97]
viewtopic.php?f=7&t=18585. Re: Who's slag? Postby browse4antiques » Tue Jun 18, 2013 12:30 pm
[CAC REF 98]
[CAC REF 99]
viewtopic.php?f=7&t=17378. Re: cac or ravenswood. Postby Marble Whisperer » Wed Apr 03, 2013 12:17 am
[CAC REF 100]
viewtopic.php?f=7&t=17378. Re: cac or ravenswood. Postby chucks_marbles » Tue Apr 02, 2013 10:41 pm
[CAC REF 101]
viewtopic.php?f=7&t=20383. Re: ??????? OPINIONS. Postby browse4antiques » Sat Oct 19, 2013 4:27 pm
[CAC REF 102]
viewtopic.php?f=7&t=18535. Re: CAC transparent swirl? Postby buckeye » Sun Jun 16, 2013 11:27 am
[CAC REF 103]
viewtopic.php?f=7&t=18729. Re: Red slag w/ 9 & Tail ? Postby browse4antiques » Fri Jun 28, 2013 3:14 pm
[CAC REF 104]
viewtopic.php?f=7&t=17220. Re: learning page for me and newbees. Postby Marble Whisperer » Mon Mar 25, 2013 12:19 am
[CAC REF 105]
viewtopic.php?f=7&t=18653. Re: 4 Nice swirls. Postby wvrons » Mon Jun 24, 2013 9:01 am
[CAC REF 106]
viewtopic.php?f=7&t=19098. Re: Pelt yellow slag? Postby 1Alleynut » Sat Jul 27, 2013 8:11 am
[CAC REF 107] Re: Transitional? Postby Marble Whisperer » Sun Aug 18, 2013 7:47 pm
[CAC REF 108] ... more-cacs/. Posted 04 August 2013 - 09:21 PM. Gnome Punter
[CAC REF 109] ... cac/Posted 18 July 2013 - 12:37 AM. lstmmrbls
[CAC REF 110] ... lp-please/. Posted Yesterday, 03:14 PM. lstmmrbls
[CAC REF 111] ... -learning/. Posted 21 September 2013 - 10:27 PM. 1DanS
[CAC REF 112] ... -possibly/. Posted 22 August 2013 - 10:55 PM. steph
[CAC REF 113] ... -possibly/. Posted 23 August 2013 - 06:35 PM. Lstmmrbls
[CAC REF 114] Posted 23 February 2013 - 01:20 PM. Lstmmrbls
[CAC REF 115] ... on-or-cac/. Posted 15 July 2011 - 10:10 PM. sissydear
[CAC REF 116] Posted 01 May 2011 - 09:28 AM. BuckEye
[CAC REF 117] ... om-europe/. Posted 03 January 2011 - 05:40 PM
[CAC REF 118] ... -or-cobra/. Posted 12 November 2010 - 05:34 PM. Lstmmrbls
[CAC REF 119] Posted 04 July 2013 - 08:16 PM. Lstmmrbls
[CAC REF 120] ... ristensen/. Posted 11 August 2010 - 05:09 PM. David Chamberlain
[CAC REF 121] ... ristensen/. Posted 12 August 2010 - 06:02 PM. Dutch
[CAC REF 122] ... ristensen/. Posted 21 August 2010 - 04:14 PM. David Chamberlain
[CAC REF 123] Posted 17 August 2010 - 03:03 PM. Romanoak
[CAC REF 124] ... ree-color/. Posted 01 July 2010 - 10:30 PM. Lstmmrbls
[CAC REF 125] ... -ca/page-2. Posted 09 February 2010 - 05:11 PM, David Chamberlain
[CAC REF 126]
viewtopic.php?f=7&t=1123&p=10060. Re: Opinions?, Postby ann » Wed Mar 03, 2010 1:06 pm
[CAC REF 127]
viewtopic.php?f=7&t=1138&p=10191, Re: Did Someone Say Peach?, Postby Wayne8508 » Thu Mar 04, 2010 6:43 pm
[CAC REF 128]
viewtopic.php?f=5&t=336&p=2720. Re: Uncommon colors, Postby slagmarble » Fri Jan 15, 2010 11:30 pm
[CAC REF 129]
viewtopic.php?f=7&t=19716&p=157986. Re: CAC 2 seam Slag? 23/34, Postby browse4antiques » Sat Sep 14, 2013 5:28 pm
[CAC REF 130]
viewtopic.php?f=7&t=19716&p=157986, Re: CAC 2 seam Slag? 23/34, Postby Dominick » Sat Sep 14, 2013 4:23 pm
[CAC REF 131]
viewtopic.php?f=7&t=19716&p=157986, Re: CAC 2 seam Slag? 23/34, Postby browse4antiques » Sat Sep 14, 2013 1:15 pm
[CAC REF 132]
viewtopic.php?f=7&t=4338&p=36566. Re: An Electric Peach Slag?, Postby ann » Mon Feb 28, 2011 9:14 pm
[CAC REF 133]
viewtopic.php?f=7&t=100&p=704. Re: Akro? CAC?, Postby FeelingMarbleous » Mon Dec 14, 2009 10:23 pm
[CAC REF 134]
viewtopic.php?f=5&t=114&p=758. Re: Weird Green Brick?, Postby I Love Marbles » Sat Dec 19, 2009 2:51 pm
[CAC REF 135]
viewtopic.php?f=5&t=19424&start=20, Re: Interesting Stumpers!, Posted by chucks_mibs » Fri Aug 23, 2013 3:42 pm
[CAC REF 136]
viewtopic.php?f=7&t=19564&p=156797, Akro or vitro, Postby gregor » Tue Sep 03, 2013 12:05 pm
[CAC REF 137]
viewtopic.php?f=5&t=19424&start=20, Re: Interesting Stumpers!, Posted by Mib Whisperer » Fri Aug 23, 2013 3:12 pm
[CAC REF 138]
viewtopic.php?f=7&t=18585&p=149640. Re: Who's slag? Postby browse4antiques » Tue Jun 18, 2013 12:30 pm
[CAC REF 139]
viewtopic.php?f=5&t=23228. Cullet confirms another identification. Postby wvrons » Sat Mar 29, 2014 7:25 pm
[CAC REF 140]
viewtopic.php?f=5&t=13027. Re: Canton scores part 2.....where is everyone that went? Postby buckeye » Thu Aug 16, 2012 9:18 pm
[CAC REF 141] ... =bluebells. Posted 29 November 2008 - 06:11 PM. lstmmrbls
[CAC REF 142] Christensen Agate Company (1925-1933)
[CAC REF 143] ... blue-laces. Posted 30 November 2008 - 11:23 AM. lstmmrbls (Galen)
[CAC REF 144] ... ces/page-2. Posted 03 December 2008 - 08:57 PM. Romanoak
[CAC REF 145]
viewtopic.php?f=7&t=27051 Re: CACs? New postby buckeye » Sat Dec 13, 2014 12:45 am
[CAC REF 146]
viewtopic.php?f=7&t=23144 Re: Black, Yellow & a Very Thin Line of Red/Ox? New postby jnrcopper » Mon Mar 24, 2014 10:29 pm
[CAC REF 147]
viewtopic.php?f=5&t=9337&p=79794 Re: CAC Construction Zone been thinking.......... Postby browse4antiques » Fri Jan 13, 2012 11:45 pm

[CAC REF 148]
viewtopic.php?f=5&t=15222 Re: Christensen Worlds Best Moon. Postby Mib Whisperer » Mon Nov 26, 2012 12:23 am

[CAC REF 149]
viewtopic.php?f=5&t=15222 Re: Christensen Worlds Best Moon. Postby gregor » Mon Nov 26, 2012 12:21 am
[CAC REF 150]
viewtopic.php?f=7&t=25799 Re: How do you identify an Akro Agate MOONIE? New postby wvrons » Fri Sep 05, 2014 11:48 pm
[CAC REF 151]
viewtopic.php?f=5&t=12553&p=102112 Re: This CAC really begs more questions. Postby MrsMopar » Sat Jul 14, 2012 3:23 pm. This post references the MarbleAlan description.
[CAC REF 152]
viewtopic.php?f=7&t=24149 Re: Alley - CAC. New postby 1Alleynut » Sat May 17, 2014 6:40 am
[CAC REF 153]
viewtopic.php?f=7&t=24149 Re: Alley - CAC. New postby cheese » Sat May 17, 2014 1:31 pm
[CAC REF 154]
viewtopic.php?f=7&t=16727 Re: CAC Swirl Features? Postby Mib Whisperer » Sun Feb 24, 2013 8:42 pm
[CAC REF 155]
viewtopic.php?f=7&t=23113 Re: Can anyone tell me . . . . Postby cheese » Tue Mar 25, 2014 9:00 pm
[CAC REF 156]
viewtopic.php?f=7&t=27051 Re: CACs?. New postby buckeye » Fri Dec 12, 2014 11:29 pm
viewtopic.php?f=7&t=23113&start=20 Re: Can anyone tell me . . . . Postby Bradley » Tue Mar 25, 2014 7:27 pm
[CAC REF 158] Re: ID please HELP! It's B-E-A-Utiful!! New postby Angelfriend715 » Fri Aug 15, 2014 6:07 pm
[CAC REF 159]
viewtopic.php?f=5&t=27140 Cac vs Alley cut marks a mini tutorial. New postby buckeye » Mon Dec 22, 2014 12:30 am
[CAC REF 160]
viewtopic.php?f=5&t=27140 Re: Cac vs Alley cut marks a mini tutorial. New postby buckeye » Mon Dec 22, 2014 12:34 am
[CAC REF 161]
viewtopic.php?f=5&t=27140 Re: Cac vs Alley cut marks a mini tutorial. New postby buckeye » Mon Dec 22, 2014 9:33 am
viewtopic.php?f=5&t=27140 Cac vs Alley cut marks a mini tutorial. Attachment(s) by buckeye » Mon Dec 22, 2014 12:30 am
[CAC REF 162]
viewtopic.php?f=7&t=16820 Re: CAC ?a bit out of round, busy busy!!!1 Postby chucks_mibs » Thu Feb 28, 2013 5:42 am
[CAC REF 163]
viewtopic.php?f=7&t=23113 Re: Can anyone tell me . . . . Postby 1Alleynut » Tue Mar 25, 2014 7:31 am
[CAC REF 164]
viewtopic.php?f=7&t=23113 Re: Can anyone tell me . . . . Postby buckeye » Tue Mar 25, 2014 11:03 am
[CAC REF 165]
viewtopic.php?f=7&t=23113 Re: Can anyone tell me . . . . New postby dent_man60 » Mon Mar 31, 2014 9:55 pm
[CAC REF 166]
viewtopic.php?f=7&t=26243 Re: American Agate? and..... New postby browse4antiques » Tue Oct 07, 2014 2:28 pm
[CAC REF 167]
viewtopic.php?f=5&t=26341&start=20 Re: Some of my better Christensens. New postby buckeye » Wed Oct 29, 2014 10:27 am
[CAC REF 168]
viewtopic.php?f=7&t=25997 Re: Is it CAC maybe? Postby buckeye » Mon Sep 22, 2014 12:08 pm
[CAC REF 169]
[CAC REF 170] Machine for making spherical bodies or balls. ... s/US802495
[CAC REF 171] Machine for forming spherical bodies.
[CAC REF 172] Machine for forming spherical bodies.



Another great example of a marble factory was The Peltier Glass Company of Ottawa, Illinois.   The company developed some of today's most magnificent marbles.  Including in these marbles were the superman, Christmas tree, and comic marbles.  One the secrets of this company was the developing of the comic character marbles.  The characters included were Betty Boop (one of the best known cartoon characters of the 1930's she was adored by many) Bimbo, Koko and  other characters.   The unique aspect of this character marble was the developing of the technique so that the character of the marble would not come off the marble.  George W. Angerstein who lived in Chicago developed this technique and sold his rights to use the process to the Peltier Glass Company.  In October of 1933 Mr. Angerstein had applied for a patent for developing this.  The sale of these comic marbles came from the years 1932-1934.  In conclusion reproductions of these marbles are made in numerous amounts.  The "old" comic marbles one could feel the surface and you could not feel the character on the marble and thus it would not come off.  The new marbles one can definitely feel the character on the marble!


commrbl2.jpg (50548 bytes)

This is an example of what are called the Comic Marbles but these marbles are "NEW" but resemble the old style comic marble.  One way to determine an old comic marble from a new one is to feel the surface!  If you feel a rough imprint on the comic marble it is NEW.  If you do not feel a rough surface on the marble it is most likely OLD.


Cat's-Eyes Marbles

The question arises What came first the American catseye or the Japanese catseye?  A lot of marble collectors may feel that the Japanese had developed the first catseye marble.  In reality according to Everett Grist he explains the origin of the catseye as developing in America. The  Heaton Agate Company from 1939 to 1987 was the original producer of the cat's-eye in 1939 and 1940.  This new marble did not sell.  This marble evolved into a Japanese design in the decade of the 1950's.  In the late 1940's the Vitro Agate company had come out with a catseye marble in addition before the Japanese had come into the market with making catseye marbles.

As you may have noticed of my marble site I have dedicated vast amounts of time into cat's eyes marbles.  During the 1950's and the 1960's the swirl marbles of the past were losing touch with the children and the baby boomer generation found itself playing with a new form of a marble. A few marble company's evolved a new marble; a cat's eye.  The Japanese marble factories were producing this marble and had developed it in a unique perspective then the United States.  Although the Peltier Glass Marble factory had developed a cat's eye that was in a form of a banana by the early 1950's.  Japan was making the most unique cat's-eyes marbles in the 1950's-1960's.  The United States had company's such as for example, Marble King of Paden City West Virginia and Vitro Agate of West Virginia making there own unique american cat's-eyes marbles. 

Mvc-002f.jpg (54333 bytes)

This nice grouping of marbles are some of the Japanese style catseye marbles.

hcat1.jpg (14448 bytes)

This is a american cat's eye marble!

Sulphide Marbles

The mid 19th century until the mid part of the 20th century Germany was developing Sulphide Marbles! The sulphides could of been made in the United States and England. This had started the beginning of marble collecting!  The contemporary sulphide marbles mimic the old sulphides with new animals etc. in the clear glass.  Sulphides are clear glass round marbles that have silvery or white figures that consist of numbers, human figures, birds and animals.  Pellat was an englishman and he is credited to the techinique of the sulphide.  Two glassworkers were needed to insert the sulphide into the marble.  One worker took the glass on the front of the rod while the other gently put the figure into the very soft glass.  The glass from the end of the ball was folded over the figure gently.  The sulphide was rounded using a wooden tool.  The silvery sheen on the marble evolved when the process of the air would become trapped between the surrounding glass and the figure.   The most interesting aspect about sulphides was that they were given to children as toys and were also used in jewelry.  Currently today contemporary sulphide marbles are being made using the same technique that the legends of the time had used.  One glass worker for example, Jim Davis in West Virginia is making sulphide marbles of various kinds.  He is using his years of knowlege in glass to make some of the most spectacular  sulphide marbles one can imagine.  His brother Andy Davis is sharing his technique and is also making contemporary marbles.  These artist explicit contemporary marbles in a way that the legends of the past had used!

TEMP102.jpg (38006 bytes)

This is an example of the new contemporary sulphide marbles.

f-marble.jpg (42882 bytes)

This is an example of a old sulphide rabbit marble.

Reproductions, Fakes, & Repaired Marbles

I have always been amazed of the many marbles that have been produced using scrap glass or that have been re-worked from the past few years!  Jabo Inc. with the use of Fentons scrap glass have used this to produce their classic marbles the past few years!  As an owner of quite of few jabo marbles the marbles do appear to look dull looking!  It seems to me that the mixing of the glass causes the particles to break down and thus the bright colors from Fenton become duller!  

Some glassworkers and there are only a few at this time have been making marbles that mimic older machine made marbles.  They sometimes do this with glass from old marbles or cullet (re-works), and sometimes from new glass.  Some glassworkers do indeed sign there marbles and some do not! The marbles that seem very popular of late to reproduce are Christensen Agate Guineas and swirls Peltier National Line Rainbos and others.  Please be careful when purchasing these marbles!

"Re-worked marbles are marbles that are made from pieces of original marbles, cullet glass or a combination with new glass".  Most of the re-worked marbles today are bricks and oxblood's and also Leighton transitionals.   The marbles are produced by a process which melts or layers colors together or on top of one another.  Again most of these have been ground and polished because when making them this does not create a smooth surface.

Reproduction marbles are new marbles that are made to look as closely to the older machine made or handmade marbles.  The majority of reproduction marbles seem to be the rarer examples.  The most important point here is that no one is going to take the time to produce a 5-20 dollar marble when they have can reproduce a 200-400 dollar marble.

I would like to share with you one of my favorite glass artist that have been making marbles since the latter part of the twentieth century Mike Edmondson! Mike has been making marbles since 1995 and is very gifted at making the round sphere.  Mike Edmondson has created an oxblood marble from a piece of old slag glass that looks real but the "fakes" he has been working on are for research and are not for selling purposes!   Again education is the means of ones hobby and Mike is making it a point to make a few of the look alikes, so marble collectors can get a better idea of what to look for when contemplating buying a marble.  He is NOT producing any type of old marble, he is sharing with marble collectors in the nation that certain individuals can have the ability to make older marbles!  Mike does like to work with machine made ideas and designs.  Mike reworks the designs so that he has a very contemporary marble and NOT a reproduction.  Mike could have been making marbles in 1994 but he wanted to learn how to make glass signature chips first.  Mike's first marbles were signed with a black E in white glass and this was in 1995.  In 1996 Mike added a date in the glass chip.  Below are one of Mikes Oxblood Marbles that was made from a piece of old slag glass that he has made along with a picture of a akro agate oxblood marble.  Again Mike is sharing his knowledge and expertise in the wonderful world of art glass making and his marbles are to only show the education in marbles! 


mar_fake_ox.jpg (4187 bytes)

This is a picture of Mike Edmondson's oxblood marble which is made from a piece of old slag glass! Again this is for the education of marble collecting, this marble is not for selling purposes!


c58_36.jpg (32700 bytes)

This is a picture of a Akro Agate Oxblood Marble


fake-oxbloo.jpg (4406 bytes)

This is another of Mike Edmondson's creations of an oxblood marble.  You can see that it looks like a M.F. Christensen & Son marble with the 9 pattern on the top pole!  Again this is a new marble that was made from Mike and this is for the education of marble collecting, this is not being produced.


Mexican Marbles

"Vacor De Mexico is a Mexican manufacturer of marbles.  The company began operations sometime in the 1930's and today is one of the largest, if not the largest, manufacturer of marbles in the world.   Their marbles are marketed under a variety of imaginative names: Pirate, Galaxy, Meteor, Galacticas, Silver, Agate.  They are readily identifiable based on two features.  First, the marbles tend to have an oily or iridescent sheen to them.   Second, the glass tends to have ripples and creases in the surface". These marbles have value and are going to be one of the most collectible marbles in the future.

Some of the most fascinating of the mexican marble lines in the early part of the 90's consisted of the handmade marbles.   I feel that these marbles were made for a very short time and thus this will become one of the sought after of the mexican line.  The marbles are unique, and some consist of gold, silver specks and much more.  The marbles do not have any sort of design and this is why the marbles are unique.  One such pattern looks like superman colors of red and blue swirled like a tornado. If you have any information about the exact years of operation of the marbles please let me know!

House of Marbles in England

I have always been fascinated of the European countries.  Some of the prized marbles have evolved from Germany, Czechoslovakia, etc.  At present I wanted to educate the marble collectors of a place in England that is called the House of Marbles, in Teignmouth, South Devon, England this place is known for some high quality glass.  The company makes art deco spheres, eggs, glass objects marbles and paperweights.  House of Marbles makes handmade glass marbles and they resemble the older handmade swirls.  They do not make sulphide marbles but all early handmade marbles are made.  A lot of marble collectors become confused when purchasing marbles from the House of Marbles.  They assume that the machine made marbles are produced at the factory.  This can cause problems for collectors in which without adequate study individuals assign names to the marbles.    Marbles that are sold from the House of Marbles are produced by foreign marble factories, in addition the United States.  The House of Marbles head office is Devon England and in Belle Mead, New Jersey the United States office is located. 

Marble Factories to Visit   (information added June 26, 2002)

The most interesting way to learn how marbles are made is to visit marble factories.  Some factories that still exist today will give you a tour of the factory and show you the way marbles are made.  One of the most popular marble factories is Marble King in Paden City West Virginia.  Please visit there website at   Marble King is still producing marbles today! 

Guy and Denise Gregg had posted this on the marble family bulletin board and I think that it should be included under this category.  While at the Ottawa, IL marble show he had time visiting all of the great marble collectors and dealers at the show.  This also included the new owner of Peltier Glass, Mr. Boyce Lundstrom, and one of his employees, a Mr. Mike Barton, who is a glass artist and has been in the employment of Mr. Lundstrom for some 28 years.  Boyce as he is called, has shown a great interest in marbles, and plans are on the table to start the production of a new line Peltier Marbles, without reproducing any of the Peltier as we now know them.  One of his other plans, is to open a museum of glass, and related items, in the city of Ottawa near the Peltier facility.  Denise and Guy were invited to go on a tour of the Peltier glass company facility with Boyce.  They were greeted by Mr. James Armstrong, who is the son of the previous owner, and is now employed by Mr. Lundstrom.  They were taken from where the raw materials were stored right on through to the finished product.  They were shown several of the original marble making machines, which are presently being restored.  They were allowed to take pictures and they proceeded through the factory.  (Guy Gregg has since passed away, I will always cherish my email discussions with him, he was an inspiration to the hobby of marble collecting).

The first picture is of a 5/8's marble roller machine, with Mike, Boyce and Denise.  The molten glass is cut, and dropped down on the left hand side of the rollers which are turning.  The rollers themselves, as you can see are grooved and are auger type in design, so the molten glass will travel to the right as the marble is forming.  When the marble reaches the right hand side of the rollers, it drops down on to a short shoot, onto another type of an auger which is also revolving and carries the container.  Then is goes to an annealing oven which in theory prevents the glass from fractures.


The next picture is of a pee wee machine, with the same procedure or operation.


The next picture is Mr. Lundstrom, after taking a ladle of molten glass from the furnace.


The next picture he poured the molten glass onto the floor to give us an idea of just how hot the glass was.  It actually burned as it was supplied with oxygen from the air, while laying on the floor.


The next picture is one of the very capable workers pouring molten glass form one of the main furnaces into another furnace, which brings the glass to the proper temperature.  They were making gems at this particular furnace (those little things that look like a marble that has been stepped on). 


The next picture is one of the original walls of the 116 year old building, with James, Denise, Mike, and Boyce.


Next is three of the various glass tiles that they will be making.


Next is two other glass tiles.

All of the information above is courtesy of Guy.


Marble Museum at York Nebraska (June 26, 2002)

Did you know that their is a marble museum in York Nebraska?  I did not know until Guy had posted this on the Marble Family Bulletin Board. He had visited the museum and had shared a few pictures from his visit.  This is his exact words that he had posted on the bulletin board.  "Our visit to the Marble Museum, in York, Nebraska was a very pleasant one. It started with a trip to Leroy Johnson’s house. What a nice guy, and his wife and Son is just as nice. He took Denise & I on a tour of his Marble reconditioning Room. He has I believe, six Machines, all working at the same time, it keeps him pretty busy, but he took the time to show us some of his collection, he has thousands of marbles, and we just touched the surface. After about two hours we went on to the Museum, There we were met by Mike Lee, and his Aunt Marge Son. It seems like we had known all of these people for years, they all had a personality, that was warm and friendly.
The Museum was a Florist Shop, prior, to the Lee’s buying it and making it into a Marble Museum. All around the perimeter of the this large room on the top shelves were Fruit Jars full of Marbles, with Showcases below full of marbles. They had every kind of Marble that you can imagine. From Clearies to Sulphides ranging in price up to, and including thousands of dollars. One of the Sulphides was a very rare 1 ½”, two fish passing in Yellow or amber glass. They had boxes, bags, and everything else that marbles were sold or given away in, there was Marble related items such as auto reflectors, road sign reflectors, razor sharpeners, and about anything else that you can imagine. In the coolers where they used to keep the flowers, they installed black lights and they showed fluorescent marbles. These pictures don’t even touch the surface. My suggestion is if you are passing within 3 hundred miles, of this 8th wonder of the world, you have got to go see it, it is unbelievable.


 Marble King Factory from Made in America 2007 (video added August 3, 2015)

Click on this link to download or view the video:


A few updates were added on November 5, 2017!

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