Apple Macintosh 411

 

Mac OS X keyboard shortcuts +

(Below you will find the most common Mac OS X keyboard shortcuts for Mac OS X + from my research on Apple's Website and from other sources)

 

Summary

Learn about common Mac OS X keyboard shortcuts. A keyboard shortcut is a way to invoke a function in Mac OS X by pressing a combination of keys on your keyboard.

Products Affected

Mac OS X 10.4, Mac OS X 10.3, Mac OS X 10.2, Mac OS X 10.1, Mac OS X 10.0, Mac OS X 10.5, Mac OS X 10.6

To use a keyboard shortcut, or key combination, you press a modifier key with a character key. For example, pressing the Command key (the key with a symbol) and the "c" key at the same time copies whatever is currently selected (text, graphics, and so forth) into the Clipboard. This is also known as the Command-C key combination (or keyboard shortcut).

A modifier key is a part of many key combinations. A modifier key alters the way other keystrokes or mouse clicks are interpreted by Mac OS X. Modifier keys include: Command, Control, Option, Shift, Caps Lock, and the fn key (if your keyboard has a fn key).

Here are the modifier key symbols you can see in Mac OS X menus:

Command key icon (Command key) - Sometimes called the "Apple key"; on Apple keyboards this key also has an Apple logo (apple
logo)
Control key icon (Control key)
Option or Alt key icon (Option key) - "Alt" may also appear on this key
Shift icon (Shift key)
Caps lock icon (Caps Lock) - Toggles Caps Lock on or off
fn (Function key) 

 

 

Startup keyboard shortcuts

Press the key or key combination until the expected function occurs/appears (for example, hold Option during startup until Startup Manager appears, or Shift until "Safe Boot" appears). Tip: If a startup function doesn't work and you use a third-party keyboard, connect an Apple keyboard and try again.

Option Display all bootable volumes (Startup Manager)
Shift Perform Safe Boot (start up in Safe Mode)
C Start from a bootable disc (DVD, CD)
T Start in FireWire target disk mode
N Start from NetBoot server
X Force Mac OS X startup (if non-Mac OS X startup volumes are present)
Command-V Start in Verbose Mode
Command-S Start in Single User Mode


Finder keyboard shortcuts

Command-A Select all items in the front Finder window (or desktop if no window is open)
Option-Command-A Deselect all items
Shift-Command-A Open the Applications folder
Command-C Copy selected item/text to the Clipboard
Shift-Command-C Open the Computer window
Command-D Duplicate selected item
Shift-Command-D Open desktop folder
Command-E Eject
Command-F Find any matching Spotlight attribute
Shift-Command-F Find Spotlight file name matches
Option-Command-F Navigate to the search field in an already-open Spotlight window
Shift-Command-G Go to Folder
Shift-Command-H Open the Home folder of the currently logged-in user account
Command-I Get Info
Option-Command-I Show Inspector
Control-Command-I Get Summary Info
Shift-Command-I Open iDisk
Command-J Show View Options
Command-K Connect to Server
Shift-Command-K Open Network window
Command-L Make alias of the selected item
Command-M Minimize window
Option-Command-M Minimize all windows
Command-N New Finder window
Shift-Command-N New folder
Option-Command-N New Smart Folder
Command-O Open selected item
Shift-Command-Q Log Out
Option-Shift-Command-Q Log Out immediately
Command-R Show original (of alias)
Command-T Add to Sidebar
Shift-Command-T Add to Favorites
Option-Command-T Hide Toolbar / Show Toolbar in Finder windows
Shift-Command-U Open Utilities folder
Command-V Paste
Command-W Close window
Option-Command-W Close all windows
Command-X Cut
Option-Command-Y Slideshow (Mac OS X 10.5 or later)
Command-Z Undo / Redo
Command-1 View as Icon
Command-2 View as List
Command-3 View as Columns
Command-4 View as Cover Flow (Mac OS X 10.5 or later)
Command-, (Command and the comma key) Open Finder preferences
Command-` (the Grave accent key--above Tab key on a US English keyboard layout) Cycle through open Finder windows
Command-Shift-? Open Mac Help
Option-Shift-Command-Esc (hold for three seconds) - Mac OS X v10.5, v10.6 or later only Force Quit front-most application
Command-[ Back
Command-] Forward
Command-Up Arrow Open enclosed folder
Control-Command-Up Arrow Open enclosed folder in a new window
Command-Down Arrow Open highlighted item
Command-Tab Switch application--cycle forward
Shift-Command-Tab Switch application--cycle backward
Command-Delete Move to Trash
Shift-Command-Delete Empty Trash
Option-Shift-Command-Delete Empty Trash without confirmation dialog
Spacebar (or Command-Y) Quick Look (Mac OS X 10.5 or later)
Command key while dragging Move dragged item to other volume/location (pointer icon changes while key is held)
Option key while dragging Copy dragged item (pointer icon changes while key is held)
Option-Command key combination while dragging Make alias of dragged item (pointer icon changes while key is held)


Application and other Mac OS X keyboard commands

Note: Some applications may not support all of the below application key combinations.

Command-Space Show or hide the Spotlight search field (if multiple languages are installed, may rotate through enabled script systems)
Option-Command-Space Show the Spotlight search results window (if multiple languages are installed, may rotate through keyboard layouts and input methods within a script)
Command-Tab Move forward to the next most recently used application in a list of open applications
Shift-Command-Tab Move backward through a list of open applications (sorted by recent use)
Shift-Tab Navigate through controls in a reverse direction
Control-Tab Move focus to the next grouping of controls in a dialog or the next table (when Tab moves to the next cell)
Shift-Control-Tab Move focus to the previous grouping of controls
Command-esc Open Front Row (if installed)
Option-Eject Eject from secondary optical media drive (if one is installed)
Control-Eject Show shutdown dialog
Option-Command-Eject Put the computer to sleep
Control-Command-Eject Quit all applications (after giving you a chance to save changes to open documents), then restart the computer
Control Option-Command-Eject Quit all applications (after giving you a chance to save changes to open documents), then shut down the computer
fn-Delete Forward Delete (on portable Macs' built-in keyboard)
Control-F1 Toggle full keyboard access on or off
Control-F2 Move focus to the menu bar
Control-F3 Move focus to the Dock
Control-F4 Move focus to the active (or next) window
Shift-Control-F4 Move focus to the previously active window
Control-F5 Move focus to the toolbar.
Control-F6 Move focus to the first (or next) panel
Shift-Control-F6 Move focus to the previous panel
Control-F7 Temporarily override the current keyboard access mode in windows and dialogs
F9 Tile or untile all open windows
F10 Tile or untile all open windows in the currently active application
F11 Hide or show all open windows
F12 Hide or display Dashboard
Command-` Activate the next open window in the frontmost application
Shift-Command-` Activate the previous open window in the frontmost application
Option-Command-` Move focus to the window drawer
Command- - (minus) Decrease the size of the selected item
Command-{ Left-align a selection
Command-} Right-align a selection
Command-| Center-align a selection
Command-: Display the Spelling window
Command-; Find misspelled words in the document
Command-, Open the front application's preferences window (if it supports this keyboard shortcut)
Option-Control-Command-, Decrease screen contrast
Option-Control-Command-. Increase screen contrast
Command-? Open the application's help in Help Viewer
Option-Command-/ Turn font smoothing on or off
Shift-Command-= Increase the size of the selected item
Shift-Command-3 Capture the screen to a file
Shift-Control-Command-3 Capture the screen to the Clipboard
Shift-Command-4 Capture a selection to a file
Shift-Control-Command-4 Capture a selection to the Clipboard
Command-A Highlight every item in a document or window, or all characters in a text field
Command-B Boldface the selected text or toggle boldfaced text on and off
Command-C Copy the selected data to the Clipboard
Shift-Command-C Display the Colors window
Option-Command-C Copy the style of the selected text
Control-Command-C Copy the formatting settings of the selected item and store on the Clipboard
Option-Command-D Show or hide the Dock
Command-Control D Display the definition of the selected word in the Dictionary application
Command-E Use the selection for a find
Command-F Open a Find window
Option-Command-F Move to the search field control
Command-G Find the next occurrence of the selection
Shift-Command-G Find the previous occurrence of the selection
Command-H Hide the windows of the currently running application
Option-Command-H Hide the windows of all other running applications
Command-I Italicize the selected text or toggle italic text on or off
Option-Command-I Display an inspector window
Command-J Scroll to a selection
Command-M Minimize the active window to the Dock
Option-Command-M Minimize all windows of the active application to the Dock
Command-N Create a new document in the frontmost application
Command-O Display a dialog for choosing a document to open in the frontmost application
Command-P Display the Print dialog
Shift-Command-P Display a dialog for specifying printing parameters (Page Setup)
Command-Q Quit the frontmost application
Command-S Save the active document
Shift-Command-S Display the Save As dialog
Command-T Display the Fonts window
Option-Command-T Show or hide a toolbar
Command-U Underline the selected text or turn underlining on or off
Command-V Paste the Clipboard contents at the insertion point
Option-Command-V Apply the style of one object to the selected object (Paste Style)
Option-Shift-Command-V Apply the style of the surrounding text to the inserted object (Paste and Match Style)
Control-Command-V Apply formatting settings to the selected object (Paste Ruler Command)
Command-W Close the frontmost window
Shift-Command-W Close a file and its associated windows
Option-Command-W Close all windows in the application without quitting it
Command-X Remove the selection and store in the Clipboard
Command-Z Undo previous command (some applications allow for multiple Undos)
Shift-Command-Z Redo previous command (some applications allow for multiple Redos)
Control-Right Arrow Move focus to another value or cell within a view, such as a table
Control-Left Arrow Move focus to another value or cell within a view, such as a table
Control-Down Arrow Move focus to another value or cell within a view, such as a table
Control-Up Arrow Move focus to another value or cell within a view, such as a table
Command-Right Arrow Move the text insertion point to the end of the current line
Command-Left Arrow Move the text insertion point to the beginning of the current line
Command-Down Arrow Move the text insertion point to the end of the document
Command-Up Arrow Move the text insertion point to the beginning of the document
Shift-Command-Right Arrow Select text between the insertion point and the end of the current line (*)
Shift-Command-Left Arrow Select text between the insertion point and the beginning of the current line (*)
Shift-Right Arrow Extend text selection one character to the right (*)
Shift-Left Arrow Extend text selection one character to the left (*)
Shift-Command-Up Arrow Select text between the insertion point and the beginning of the document (*)
Shift-Command-Down Arrow Select text between the insertion point and the end of the document (*)
Shift-Up Arrow Extend text selection to the line above, to the nearest character boundary at the same horizontal location (*)
Shift-Down Arrow Extend text selection to the line below, to the nearest character boundary at the same horizontal location (*)
Shift-Option-Right Arrow Extend text selection to the end of the current word, then to the end of the following word if pressed again (*)
Shift-Option-Left Arrow Extend text selection to the beginning of the current word, then to the beginning of the following word if pressed again (*)
Shift-Option-Down Arrow Extend text selection to the end of the current paragraph, then to the end of the following paragraph if pressed again (*)
Shift-Option-Up Arrow Extend text selection to the beginning of the current paragraph, then to the beginning of the following paragraph if pressed again (*)
Control-Space Toggle between the current and previous input sources
Option-Control-Space Toggle through all enabled input sources
Option-Command-esc Force Quit

(*) Note: If no text is selected, the extension begins at the insertion point. If text is selected by dragging, then the extension begins at the selection boundary. Reversing the direction of the selection deselects the appropriate unit.


Universal Access - VoiceOver keyboard commands

For information about VoiceOver key combination differences in Mac OS X v10.6

Command-F5 or
fn Command-F5
Turn VoiceOver on or off
Control Option-F8 or
fn Control Option-F8
Open VoiceOver Utility
Control Option-F7 or
fn Control Option-F7
Display VoiceOver menu
Control Option-;
or fn Control Option-;
Enable/disable VoiceOver Control Option-lock
Option-Command-8 or
fn Command-F11
Turn on Zoom
Option-Command-+ Zoom In
Option-Command- - (minus) Zoom Out
Option-Control-Command-8 Invert/revert the screen colors
Control Option-Command-, Reduce contrast
Control Option-Command-. Increase contrast

Note: You may need to enable "Use all F1, F2, etc. keys as standard keys" in Keyboard preferences for the VoiceOver menu and utility to work.


Universal Access - Mouse Keys

When Mouse Keys is turned on in Universal Access preferences, you can use the keyboard or numeric keypad keys to move the mouse pointer. If your computer doesn't have a numeric keypad, use the Fn (function) key.

8 Move Up
2 Move Down
4 Move Left
6 Move Right
1 Move Diagonally Bottom Left
3 Move Diagonally Bottom Right
7 Move Diagonally Top Left
9 Move Diagonally Top Right
5 Press Mouse Button
0 Hold Mouse Button
. (period on number pad) Release Hold Mouse Button

 

Taking Screenshots

Action Keystroke
Take picture of the entire screen Cmd-Shift-3
Take picture of a selected area Cmd-Shift-4 and Drag over desired area
New in Mac OS 10.5: While dragging:
- Hold Spacebar to move selected area.
- Hold Shift to change size in one direction only (horizontal or vertical)
- Hold Option for center-based resizing.
Take picture of a specific window/object Cmd-Shift-4, then press Spacebar, then Click on the window/object
Copy the screenshot to the clipboard instead of making a file Hold Control with the above keystrokes
Screenshots are saved to the Desktop as PNG file in OS 10.4 and later (or a PDF file in OS 10.3 and prior).

 

Working with Windows

Action Keystroke
Switch windows (works in most programs) Next window: Cmd-tilde(~)
Previous Window: Cmd-Shift-tilde(~)
See where the File/Folder is located (a menu will pop-up displaying the folder hierarchy). This works in “most” programs as well as the Finder. Cmd-Click on name of the window in its titlebar
Move a window in the background without switching to it.
(Example: You’re in a dialog and can’t move a window in the background, so Cmd-Drag its titlebar.)
Cmd-Drag on a window’s titlebar

 

Dock Shortcuts

Action Keystroke
Hide all other applications (except the one you're clicking on) Command-Option click an App’s icon in Dock
Reveal a Dock item’s location in the Finder Command Click on the icon in the Dock
Move and a Dock item to somewhere else on the hard drive Command Drag the icon from the Dock to new destination
Force a file to open in a specific program While dragging the file onto an app’s icon in the Dock, hold Command-Option
When in an app’s Dock menu, change the Quit to Force Quit Hold Option while in Dock menu
Force the Dock to only resize to non-interpolated icon sizes Hold Option while dragging Dock separator
Move Dock to left, bottom, right side of screen Hold Shift and drag Dock divider
Temporarily turn magnification on (or off) It’s a toggle. Hold Control-Shift (Mac OS 10.5 and later)

 

Shutdown/Sleep Commands

Action Keystroke
Shutdown immediately (no confirmation) Cmd-Opt-Ctrl-Eject
Sleep immediately (no confirmation) Cmd-Opt-Eject
Restart, Sleep, Shutdown dialog (like hitting the Power button on old Mac keyboards) Ctrl-Eject
Put display to sleep Ctrl-Shift-Eject

 

Dashboard

Action Keystroke
Open/Close Widget Dock Cmd-Plus(+)
Cycle to next/previous “page” of widgets in widget dock Cmd-Right/Left Arrow
Close a widget without having to open the widget dock Hold Option and hover over widget (close box will appear)
Reload/Refresh a widget Cmd-R

 

Spaces Mac OS 10.5 and 10.6

Action Keystroke
Activate Spaces (birds-eye view of all spaces) F8
Consolidate all windows into a Single Workspace After pressing F8, press C to consolidate (press C again to restore)
Move to a neighboring space Ctrl-arrow key (left, right, up or down)
Move to a specific space Ctrl-number of the space (1, 2, 3, etc.)
Move all windows of an app to another space Cmd-Drag in Space’s birds-eye view (Control and Shift also work)

 

Spotlight

Action Keystroke
Open Spotlight Menu Cmd-Space
Open Spotlight Window Cmd-Option-Space
In Spotlight menu: Launch Top Hit Return (In Mac OS 10.4 it’s Cmd-Return)
Reveal the selected item in the Finder In Spotlight Menu: Cmd-click item or press Cmd-Return

In Spotlight Window: Press Cmd-R

Skip to first result in each category Cmd up/down arrow
Clear Spotlight’s search field Esc clears to do another search.
Esc a second time closes the spotlight menu.

 

Working with Text (some only work in Cocoa apps like Safari, Mail, TextEdit, etc.)

Action Keystroke
Go to end of line Cmd-right arrow
Go to beginning of line Cmd-left arrow
Go to end of all the text Cmd-down arrow
Go to beginning of all the text Cmd-up arrow
Go to end of current or next word Option-right arrow
Go to beginning of current or previous word Option-left arrow
NOTE: Add Shift to any of the above keystrokes to make a selection to that point.
On Laptops: Delete Text to the right of the cursor (like the Del key on a full keyboard) Function(fn)-Delete
Non-touching (Discontinuous) text selections Command-drag
Select non-linear areas Option-drag
Delete entire word to the left Opt-Delete
Look up word in dictionary Position mouse over a word and hold Cmd-Ctrl-D
Auto completion word Start typing the word. Press Esc (or F5) to open suggested word list

 

Emacs Key Bindings (only work in Cocoa apps like Safari, Mail, TextEdit, iChat, etc.)

Action Keystroke Remember As
go to start of line (puts cursor at beginning of current line) Ctrl-A A = Start of alphabet
go to end of line (puts cursor at end of current line) Ctrl-E E = End
go up one line Ctrl-P P = Previous
go down one line Ctrl-N N = Next
go back one character (moves cursor left 1 place) Ctrl-B B = Back
go forward one character (moves cursor right 1 place) Ctrl-F F = Forward
delete the character to the right of the cursor Ctrl-D D = Delete
delete the character to the left of the cursor Ctrl-H  
delete to end of the line (or delete the selection) Ctrl-K K = Kill rest of line
scroll down Ctrl-V  
center the current line in the window Ctrl-L  
insert line break after the cursor without moving the cursor Ctrl-O  
transpose letters (swaps letter on the left and right of cursor) Ctrl-T T = Transpose

 

Miscellaneous

Action Keystroke
Force Quit (opens list so you can choose application) Cmd-Opt-Esc
Force Quit Frontmost Application (without confirmation) Hold Cmd-Opt-Shift-Escape for about 4 seconds
On Laptops: Scroll (like a mouse’s scroll wheel)
(Works on newer laptops if enabled in System Preferences)
 
Slide 2 fingers on the trackpad
On Laptops: Right-click (like on a 2 button mouse)
(Works on newer laptops if enabled in System Preferences)
Place 2 fingers on the trackpad and Click
Quickly find any menu item and launch it. (Mac OS 10.5) 1. Press Cmd-?  FYI: That’s Cmd-Shift-/
2. In the Help menu Search that opens, start typing a few letters of your desired menu command.
3. Arrow key down to the item you want and press Return to choose it.
Change system volume without the confirmation beeps Hold Shift while changing volume
Completely smooth scrolling—one pixel at a time.
(Only works in Cocoa apps.)
Hold Option while dragging scrollbar
Open System Preferences:
NOTE: These launch directly into a preference pane.
Two examples are given.
To open “Sound” Preferences:
Hold Option and press any Sound key
(Mute, Volume Up or Down )

To open “Displays” Preferences:
Hold Option and press any Brightness key
 
Open Front Row Cmd-Esc
Quickly Exit Front Row Press any F key, like F5. In 10.5 and later, non F keys also work.
Customize the toolbar at the top of a window.
Works for toolbars like in Safari, Apple Mail, Preview, Finder, etc. But it doesn't work in all programs, like Firefox.
- Rearrange icons:
   Hold Cmd and drag the icons around.

- Remove icons:
   Hold Cmd and drag icon off toolbar.
- View toolbar options:
   Ctrl-click on the toolbar to get a menu.

 

Application Switcher

Action Keystroke
Quickly switch between 2 programs
(such as: InDesign & Photoshop)
Press Cmd-Tab to switch to the last used program.
Press Cmd-Tab again to switch back.
NOTE: Press keys quickly and do NOT hold them down.
Switch between programs (but you choose which program to switch to) Press Cmd-Tab and continue holding Cmd.
While holding Cmd, to choose which program you want to switch to you can:
• press Tab (several times if needed) to scroll right
• press Shift-Tab or tilde(~) to scroll left
• use the left/right arrow keys
• aim with the mouse
• use end/home keys to just to first/last item
Quit a program using the application switcher When in the app switcher you’re already holding Cmd.
Once the program is selected hit Q to quit.
Hide a program using the application switcher When in the app switcher you’re already holding Cmd.
Once the program is selected hit H to hide.
Cancel out of the application switcher once it’s open When in the app switcher you're already holding Cmd.
Hit Esc or period(.)

 

Customize Keyboard Shortcuts for ANY Program

While more programs are now allowing you to customize their own keystrokes, but even if it doesn't, Mac OS X gives you a way. You can define universal keystrokes apply to all applications, or specifically for one application. Here's how to do it:

1. Go into the Apple Menu > System Preferences.
2. Click Keyboard & Mouse (Keyboard in Mac OS 10.6 Snow Leopard).
3. Click the Keyboard Shortcuts tab.
4. Click the + button (towards the lower left side).
5. Choose All Applications or the specific one you want.
6. Enter the Name of the menu item exactly as it appears (don't worry about the menu that it's in, just the name of the specific menu item. Capitalization matters and don't forget the ... at the end of many menu items.)
7. Enter the Keystroke.
8. Click Add and Quit System Preferences.
9. You'll need to relaunch the affected program to use the new keystroke.

One limitation is that the keystroke must be for a feature in a menu. If there's no menu item for the keystroke you want to change, this tip won't work.

 

Easy Configuration of Bonjour (formerly Rendezvous) Printers

If your printer supports Bonjour (formerly called Rendezvous) you can administrate it through Safari! Who would have thought? Try it out...
• Launch Safari.
• Go into Bookmarks > Show All Bookmarks.
• On the left side click Bonjour (or Rendezvous).
• Your printer should be listed there. Double-click it and test out that admin page!

 

How to create a shortcut of an icon on your desktop in Mac OS X

In window, we use to create shortcut at Desktop for easy access. It’s a bit different to create shortcut in Mac OS X. For Mac newbie, this tutorial will teach you how to create shortcut in Mac OS X.

To create short cut in Mac OS X, follow the steps below:-
 

OR

The following is how to create an alias (shortcut) on a Macintosh:

  1. Highlight the program you wish to create an alias for.
  2. Click on File.
  3. Select Make Alias.
  4. Drag the Alias to the desktop.

Command+Option+ (mouse drag)

Will also create an alias.


Creating keyboard shortcuts for applications

You can assign your own keyboard shortcuts to menu commands in any Mac OS X application or in the Finder. This may be useful if, for example, one of the “global” shortcuts, which works the same in most applications, is used by one application for a different purpose. In this case, you can assign it a different key combination.

You can create keyboard shortcuts only for existing menu commands. You can’t define keyboard shortcuts for general purpose tasks such as opening an application or switching between applications.

 
 

To create a keyboard shortcut for an application:

Step 1

Choose Apple menu > System Preferences, and then click Keyboard & Mouse.

Step 2

Click Keyboard Shortcuts, and then click the Add (+) button.

Step 3

Choose an application from the Application pop-up menu. If you want to set the same key combination for a menu command that appears in many applications, choose All Applications.

If the application you want to select does not appear in the list, choose Other and locate the application using the Open dialog. Some applications may not allow you to set keyboard shortcuts.

Step 4

Type the menu command for which you want to set a keyboard shortcut in the Menu Title field.

You must type the command exactly as it appears in the application menu, including ellipses and any other punctuation. An ellipsis is a special character that looks like three periods. To type an ellipsis, press Option-semicolon, or use the Character Palette. It may be difficult to know whether the command is written in the menu with a real ellipsis or with three periods, so if one does not work, try the other.

Step 5

Click in the Keyboard Shortcut field and press the key combination that you want to assign to the menu command, and then click Add.

You cannot use each type of key (for example, a letter key) more than once in a key combination.

Step 6

Quit the application for which you added or changed a keyboard shortcut.

Step 7

Restart the application to see the keyboard shortcut in the application’s menu.

 
 

If you assign a keyboard shortcut that already exists for another command or another application, your new shortcut won’t work. Find the menu command that’s using it and reassign the keyboard shortcut for that item.

To remove a customized shortcut, click the Delete (–) button.

If you want to return all the shortcuts to their original key combinations, click Restore Defaults.


Mac OS X 10.5 Help

If a keyboard shortcut doesn’t work

It’s possible to have keyboard shortcuts for one application that conflict with another application. For example, Command-Space bar opens the Spotlight menu, but in another application it might be used for switching between different input methods.

 
 

To see and change keyboard shortcut assignments:

Step 1

Choose Apple menu > System Preferences, and then click Keyboard & Mouse.

Step 2

Click Keyboard Shortcuts. A yellow warning triangle appears next to conflicting keyboard shortcuts.

 

If you can’t use some keyboard shortcuts

 

Some full keyboard access shortcuts may be unavailable in some applications. Make sure you’re using the latest Mac OS X version of the application.

If the keyboard shortcut uses a function key and you’re using a portable computer, you must press the Control key first, and then press the Fn key and the function key.

In the Keyboard pane of Keyboard & Mouse preferences, you can select an option that lets you use the function keys for keyboard shortcuts without pressing the Fn key.

 

Using global keyboard shortcuts

You can use keyboard shortcuts to quickly perform tasks on your computer by pressing keys on your keyboard. You can disable or change many of the computer’s “global” keyboard shortcuts, which are shortcuts that work the same in most applications (for example, taking a picture of the screen by pressing Command-Shift-3).

Changing or disabling a shortcut may be useful if, for example, one of the global shortcuts is used by a specific application for a different purpose. In this case, you can either disable the shortcut that you do not need, or assign it a different key combination.

Note: You can create keyboard shortcuts only for existing menu commands. You cannot define keyboard shortcuts for general purpose tasks such as opening an application or switching between applications.

 
 

To change global keyboard shortcuts:

Step 1

Choose Apple menu > System Preferences, and then click Keyboard & Mouse.

Step 2

Click Keyboard Shortcuts.

Step 3

Select the action in the Description list that you want to change.

Step 4

Double-click the characters in the Shortcut column, and press the new key combination that you want to use.

You cannot use each type of key (for example, a letter key) more than once in a key combination.

Step 5

Quit and restart any applications you’re using for the new keyboard shortcut to take effect.

 
 

To disable a shortcut, deselect the checkbox next to its description in the list.

If you want to return all the shortcuts to their original key combinations, click Restore Defaults.

 

Startup Manager: How to select a startup volume

Summary

The Startup Manager allows you to choose the startup volume available to your Mac.

Products Affected

iBook, MacBook Pro, MacBook, PowerBook, Mac Pro, Power Mac, Mac mini, iMac, Mac OS, MacBook Air

A "startup volume" is a disk or partition of a disk that contains a usable operating system. Startup Manager allows you to choose the startup volume on the fly, by simply holding down the Option key while the computer is starting up.

How to choose the startup volume

Follow these steps:

  1. Turn on, or restart, your Mac.
  2. Immediately press and hold the Option key. After a few seconds, the Startup Manager should appear. The Startup Manager scans for available available volumes.
  3. Use the left and right arrow keys on the keyboard to select the volume you would like to use.
  4. Press the Return key on your keyboard to start up the computer from the volume you selected.

Additional Information

You can press the Eject key on the keyboard to eject DVD media.  Inserting a startup DVD will add that DVD to the list of startup volumes (as in the image above).  You can also attach FireWire or USB external hard drives to add to the list of startup volumes.

This startup volume selection is temporary.  To set the default startup volume for your Mac after your computer is running, open System Preferences and choose Startup Disk from the View menu (in Mac OS X) or open the Boot Camp control panel (in Windows).

 

Mac OS X: Additional features of the Dock

Summary

The Dock offers useful controls and menus that may not be immediately apparent. You access these additional features with different combinations of modifier keys (such as Option, Control), and with different types of mouse clicks (click versus press and hold). Additionally, learn about Application Switcher, an alternative way to switch between applications without using the Dock or your mouse.

This article applies to Mac OS X 10.1 and later.

Products Affected

Mac OS X 10.4, Mac OS X 10.3, Mac OS X 10.2, Mac OS X 10.1, Mac OS X 10.5

About mouse clicks, key combinations

The terms "click" and "press" are used to express nuance in using your mouse--a click is quick and a press is a longer hold. A click is when you activate your mouse button and release it as quickly as possible afterwards. To press the mouse button means that you hold the button down until the desired action happens.

"Drag" means to move your mouse while pressing (holding).

If you press and hold the Control key while clicking your mouse button, that's a Control-click. When the name of a key or keys precedes the word "click," and are connected by hyphens, that means you should press and hold those keys before you click, then release them after clicking. So if you see "Option-Control-press", then you would press and hold both the Option and Control keys, and while still holding them press and hold the mouse button. Some of the combinations below do not use the mouse.

Mouse clicks and key combinations for the Dock
  • Click
    Brings the item forward, or opens it if not already open. Brings minimized windows out of the Dock.
  • Control-click
    Reveals contextual menu for item. Menu choices vary per application or file. When used on Dock separator, it reveals Dock preferences. There you can turn magnification and hiding on or off, change the position of the Dock on screen, and change the minimization effect. Choose Dock Preferences to see more options.
  • Command-click
    Reveals the original item in the Finder.
  • Command-Option-click
    Hides other open items, in addition to click action.
  • Press
    Reveals contextual menu for item. Menu choices vary per application or file.
  • Option-press
    Force Quit replaces Quit in menu, in addition to press action.
  • Shift-click
    This applies to minimized windows only. The item is de-minimized in slow motion. You can see the item minimized in slow motion by pressing Shift while minimizing it.
  • Shift-drag
    When used on Dock separator, changes Dock position on screen (left, bottom, right).
  • Option-drag
    When used on Dock separator, resizes Dock to common icon sizes (128 by 128, 64 by 64, 32 by 32, 16 by 16).
  • Command-Option-D
    Hide or Show the Dock. This is equivalent of choosing Dock from the Apple menu and then Turn Hiding
    On or Turn Hiding Off from the submenu.
  • Command-drag a Dock item from the Dock
    Copy the item without removing it from the Dock.
  • Command-drag an item to the Dock
    Create a Dock item without moving (sliding) existing Dock items while dragging. You might use this feature when dragging to a folder icon on the Dock, for example.
  • Command-option-drag a file to an application's Dock icon
    Attempt to open the file with the application regardless of file type or what application the file is associated with (if any). The application may or may not be able to open the file.

Application Switcher

Besides using the Dock to switch applications, you can use Application Switcher key combinations.

  • Command-Tab
    Cycle forward through open applications. Keep the Command key pressed continuously, while pressing and releasing the Tab key as desired. Pressing it one time will switch to the previous application you were using. You can also use Command-~ (Command-tilde) to cycle backward through open applications. You can also use the mouse, arrow keys, or (if your mouse has one) scroll wheel to select an application in the Command-Tab row.
  • Command-Shift-Tab
    Cycle backward through open applications. Keep the Command key pressed continuously, while pressing and releasing the Tab and Shift keys as desired.
  • Command-H
    Hides an application that you have selected via Application Switcher. The Command key must be held continuously from the time your selection is made until you press H. After hiding an application, you must select another via Application Switcher, or it will return to the foreground when you release Command.
  • Command-Q
    Quit an application. This is a common key combination independent of the Dock, but it may be useful with Application Switcher.


Notes

    1. Open ("running") items appear in the Dock with a black triangle.

    2. With a compatible multi-button mouse, the default behavior of the right button is equivalent to a Control-click ("right click").

    3. Once a contextual menu opens in the Dock (whether by Control-click or by pressing), you can use the up and down cursor keys to make a selection. After making the selection, press Return, Enter, or the mouse button to execute it.

 

Creating spoken commands for keyboard shortcuts

You can create a spoken command to perform any keyboard shortcut that appears in a menu. You can create the command as a global command that works in all applications with that command. Or you can add it to a specific application folder within the Speakable Items folder so it works only if you speak it when that application is active.

 
 

To create spoken commands for keyboard shortcuts:

Step 1

Make sure Speakable Items is turned on in Speech preferences.

Step 2

Open the application that contains the shortcut you want, press the listening key (or speak the key, depending on your settings), and then speak the command “Define a keyboard command.”

Step 3

Press the keys for the keyboard shortcut, and click OK.

Step 4

Type the name you want to use for the command in the “Define keyboard command” dialog, following the recommended naming guidelines, and select whether to use this command just in the active application or in any application.

 
 

To use your new command, click the triangle at the bottom of the speech feedback window (a small round window with a microphone image) and choose “Open Speech Commands window.” You can speak your command as soon as it appears in the window, usually about 20 seconds after you add it.